A look at some of the newest published studies coming out of the NC State College of Veterinary Medicine.
- Two drugs with immunosuppressive effects are unlikely to increase the risk of secondary microbial infections in dogs suffering from skin conditions, according to a study co-authored by Thierry Olivry and Judy Paps. Published in BMC Veterinary Research, the study looks at the impact of prednisone and ciclosporin on dogs with atopic dermatitis, finding that doses used for treatment do not impact cutaneous microbiota in a detectable way.
- Using whole genome sequencing, CVM researchers have pinpointed a gene mutation causing deafness and inner ear dysfunction in a Doberman puppy. The study, published in the Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine and co-authored by Oriana Yost, Kathryn Meurs, Natasha Olby and Julien Guevar, identifies an alteration on the PTPRQ gene associated with congenital hearing and vestibular disorders in the breed.
- Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a global threat to human and animal health. Particularly devastating is multi-drug resistance, which increases the chance an infection cannot be treated by antibiotics. A study co-authored by Cristina Lanzas and Will Love helps to gain a more complete understanding of how various drug resistances interact with other. Published in Preventative Veterinary Medicine, the research looks at interactions involving three or more drugs in E. coli isolated from chicken and turkey meat, finding that multi-drug resistance is characterized by a broad range of interaction patterns. The work suggests the need for more detailed population genetic studies for a full understanding of of how multi-drug resistance can be controlled.
- A study of antibiotic use in wild turtles identifies a drug that helps provide better medical care for a species experiencing population declines and unaccustomed to frequent handling by veterinarians. The work was published by the Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics and co-authored by Mark Papich, Delta Dise, Gregory Lewbart and Anthony Cerreta. A proper dosage regimen was established for ceftazidime, a cephalosporin used to treat bacterial infections.
- A new study from co-authors including Shelly Vaden and Adam Birkenheuer looks at the tick-borne disease Babesiosis and how afflicted dogs respond to treatment. The research, published in the Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, documents azotemia and proteinuria in dogs infected with the disease and notes improvement seen after antiprotozoal treatment.
- For the first time, small Indian mongooses are confirmed as natural reservoirs of vector-borne bacterial disease Bartonella henselae in the Western Hemisphere, according to a study co-authored by Ed Breitschwerdt and Ricardo Maggi. The research, published in Veterinary Microbiology, identifies B. henselae in mongooses from Grenada, West Indies. It is the first report of Bartonella in mongooses in the Western Hemisphere and suggests a potential source of zoonotic risk with mongoose-human contact in that area, which primary includes North America and South America. Previously, small Indian mongooses were only reported as possible hosts for B. henselae in southern Japan. The animals in Grenada were infected with B. henselae genotype I, identical to the genotype found in the mongooses in Japan.
- A retrospective case survey of equine patients looks closely at postoperative complications in healthy horses undergoing general anesthesia for ophthalmic versus non-ophthalmic procedures. The Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association published the study, which identifies potential risk factors for the development of complications after procedures requiring anesthesia. The findings suggest anesthesia duration and drug dosage protocols for an array of specific equine surgeries. The work was co-authored by six clinicians and faculty members at the CVM and NC State, including Brian Gilger and Elizabeth Curto and Kaitlyn Walsh.
- Injectable zinc and copper decreases the frequency and intensity of diarrhea in newborn calves and heightens their immune responsiveness, according to a study co-authored by Gustavo Machado. The research, published in the Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, suggests a new approach to improve cattle performance.