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Kenneth Royal, PhD, MSEd

Associate Professor, Educational Assessment & Outcomes

Office: 919.513.6100

Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2013-present
Director of Assessment & Evaluation, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2013-2014
Director of the Medical Education Research Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2013-2014
Psychometrician, American Board of Family Medicine, 2009-2012
Adjunct Professor, Department of Educational Leadership Studies, University of Kentucky 2008-2013
Adjunct Professor, Department of Educational Policy Studies & Evaluation, University of Kentucky, 2008-2013
Assistant Director/Acting Director, Office of Assessment, University of Kentucky, 2008-2009
Teaching Assistant, College of Education, University of Kentucky, 2006-2007
Research Assistant, Colleges of Education and Engineering, University of Kentucky, 2003-2007
PhD, Higher Education – Measurement & Evaluation, University of Kentucky, 2008
MSEd, Higher Education, University of Kentucky, 2003
BS, Business Administration, Alice Lloyd College, 2002
  • (2018) Veterinary Medical Students' Motivations for Exercise.Royal KD, Hunt SA, Gonzalez LM, Lewbart GA, Bailey KM. | J Vet Med Educ 2018 Jan 18:1-7.
  • (2017) Turning a blind eye: How lack of communication with ER nurses nearly cost a patient permanent vision loss.Royal K, Kedrowicz AA. | Patient Experience Journal 2017; 4(3):12-14.
  • (2017) A Guide for Making Valid Interpretations about Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) Results.Royal KD. | J Vet Med Educ Summer 2017;44(2):316-322. Epub 2016 Aug 3.
  • (2017) Good teaching is not a race to cover content: Less can be more.Royal KD, Zakrajsek T. | Ear Nose Throat J 2017 Oct-Nov;96(10-11):402-404.
  • (2016) The Severity of Nasal Inflammatory Disease Questionnaire for Canine Idiopathic Rhinitis Control: Instrument Development and Initial Validity Evidence.Greene LM, Royal KD, Bradley JM, Lascelles BD, Johnson LR, Hawkins EC. | J Vet Intern Med 2017 Jan; 31(1):134-141. Epub 2016 Dec 25.
  • (2016) An evaluation of the psychometric properties of an advising survey for medical and professional program students.Royal KD, Gonzalez LM. | Journal of Educational Developmental Psychology 2016;6(1):195-203.
  • (2016) Social media and impression management: Veterinary Medicine students’ and faculty members’ attitudes toward the acceptability of social media posts.Kedrowicz AA, Royal K, Flammer, K. | J Adv Med Educ Prof 2016 Oct; 4(4):155-162.
  • (2016) Do All Dogs Go to Heaven? Investigating the Association between Demographic Characteristics and Beliefs about Animal Afterlife.Royal KD, Kedrowicz AA, Snyder A. | Anthrozoos 2016; 29(3):409-420.
  • (2016) Exploring aberrant responses using person fit and person response functions.Walker AA, Engelhard G Jr, Hedgpeth MW, Royal KD. | J Appl Meas 2016;17(2):194-208.
  • (2016) More on Diversity and Inclusion in Academic Medicine: The Isolation of Black Females.Royal KD, Cannedy AL, Dent GA. | Academic Medicine 2016 July; 91(7):896.
  • (2016) The “10 Most Wanted” test cheaters in medical education.Royal KD, Hedgpeth MW, Mulkey JR, Fremer, J. | Medical Education 2016 Nov; 50(12):1241-1244.
  • (2016) Comparing veterinary student and faculty perceptions of academic misconduct.Royal KD, Schoenfeld-Tacher R, Flammer K. | International Research in Higher Education 2016; 1(1):81-90.
  • (2016) More on standard setting.Royal KD. | The Clinical Teacher 2016 Jan; 13(1):82.
  • (2016) Students' Perceptions of and Experiences With Educational Technology: A Survey.Royal K, Hedgpeth MW, McWhorter D. | JMIR Med Educ 2016 May 18;2(1):e4.
  • (2015) Measuring factors that influence decisions to become a veterinarian.Royal KD, Schoenfeld-Tacher R, Kedrowicz AA, Hardie EM, Flammer, K. | Res Dev Med Edu 2015; 4(1):23-29.
  • (2015) Writer’s workshop: Teaching preclinical medical students the art of the patient “write-up”.Bynum, D. L., Colford, C., and Royal, K. D. (forthcoming). | The Clinical Teacher.
  • (2015) A Method for Investigating "Instructional Familiarity" and Discerning Authentic Learning.Royal KD, Hedgpeth MW, Smith KW, Kirk D. | Ann Med Health Sci Res 2015 Nov-Dec;5(6):428-34.
  • (2014) Social Network Analysis and Rasch Measurement as Complementary Methods.Royal KD, Akers L. | Rasch Measurement Transactions 2014; 28(2):1466-1467.
  • (2014) A student-led methodology for evaluating curricular redundancy.Royal KD, Gilliland KO, Dent GA. | Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation 2014 Mar; 10(23):1-8.
  • (2014) The consequential validity of ABFM examinations.Royal KD, Puffer JC. | Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 2014 May-Jun; 27(3):430-431.
  • (2014) Community Size and Organization of Practice Predict Family Physician Recertification Success.Schulte BM, Mannino DM, Royal KD, Walsh S, Peterson L, Puffer JC. | Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 2014 May-June; 27(3):383-390.
  • (2014) Are repeat exam scores trustworthy? A note about measurement error and the need for genuine instructional remediation.Royal KD, Kernick ET, Gilliland KO. | Medical Science Educator 2014 Mar; 24(1):39-41.
  • (2014) Using Rasch measurement to score, evaluate, and improve examinations in an anatomy course.Royal KD, Gilliland KO, Kernick ET. | Anat Sci Educ 2014 Nov-Dec;7(6):450-60. Epub 2014 Jan 15.
  • (2014) Book Review: Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences.Royal KD. | Psychometrika 2014 Oct; 79(4):733-735.
  • (2013) A psychometric validation of the beliefs toward mental illness scale.Royal KD, Thompson JM. | J Nurs Meas 2013; 21(3):516-524.
  • (2013) Is now the time for a Rasch measurement MOOC?Royal KD, Lybarger M. | Rasch Measurement Transactions 2013; 27(3):1437-1438.
  • (2013) Developing a psychometric ruler: An alternative presentation of Rasch Measurement output.Royal KD, Eli JA. | Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods 2013 Fall; 8(3):1-10.
  • (2013) A cautionary tale about item equating with fluctuating samples.Royal KD, Raddatz MM. | Rasch Measurement Transactions 2013; 27(2):1417.
  • (2013) Investigating guessing strategies and their success rates on items of varying difficulty levels.Royal KD, Hedgpeth MW. | Rasch Measurement Transactions 2013; 27(1):1408-9.
  • (2013) A closer look at recertification candidates pass rates.Royal KD, Puffer JC. | Ann Fam Med 2013 Jul-Aug; 11(4):389-90.
  • (2013) Criterion-referenced examinations: implications for the reporting and interpretation of examination results.Royal KD, Puffer JC. | Ann Fam Med 2013 Mar-Apr;11(2):185-7.
  • (2013) Social achievement goals: Validation among rural African-American adolescents.Jones MH, Mueller CE, Royal KD, Shim SS, Hart CO. | Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2013 Dec; 31(6):566-577.
  • (2013) Achievement goal validation among African-American high school students: CFA and Rasch results.Hart CO, Mueller CE, Royal KD, Jones MH. | Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2013 Jun; 31(3):284-299.
  • (2013) Objectively measuring change across time in higher education assessment.Royal KD, Gregg J. | Journal of Assessment and Institutional Effectiveness 2013; 3(1):19-32.
  • (2013) Dimensionality of the maintenance of certification in family practice examination: evidence of construct validity.Royal KD, Puffer JC. | Ann Fam Med 2013 May-Jun;11(3):286-8.
  • (2013) A more accurate pain scale.Royal K, Brosh A. | Rasch Measurement Transactions 2013; 26(4):1398.
  • (2012) Understanding the “Sum of subtest to overall score discrepancy” on the Maintenance of Certification-Family Practice examination.Royal KD, Puffer JC. | Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 2012 Jan-Feb; 10(1):81-82.
  • (2012) Using stylometrics to investigate New Testament authorship.Royal KD. | Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation 2012; 8(19):1-7.
  • (2012) Measuring protestant christians' willingness to seek professional psychological help for mental illness: A Rasch Measurement analysis.Royal KD, Thompson JM. | Journal of Psychology and Christianity 2012 Fall; 31(3):195-204.
  • (2012) Measuring Liberal/Conservative Voting Tendencies among U.S. Senators.Royal KD. | Rasch Measurement Transactions 2012; 26(2):1366-1367.
  • (2012) Cheating: Its implications for American Board of Family Medicine Examinees.Royal KD, Puffer JC. | Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 2012 May-Jun; 25(3):400-401.
  • (2012) A suggestion for taking Rasch-based survey results even further.Royal KD. | Rasch Measurement Transactions 2012; 25(4):1341.
  • (2011) The reliability of ABFM examinations: Implications for test-takers.Royal KD, Puffer JC. | Annals of Family Medicine 2011 Sept-Oct; 9(5):463-464.
  • (2011) A survey of attitudes about methods of assessment.Eubanks DA, Royal KD. | Assessment Update 2011 May-Jun; 23(3):1-15.
  • (2011) Psychometric properties of the Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) among terminally ill cancer patients.Royal KD, Elahi F. | J Psychosoc Oncol 2011; 29(4):359-371.
  • (2011) Understanding reliability in higher education student learning outcomes assessment.Royal KD. | Quality Assurance in Higher Education 2011; 2(2):8-15.
  • (2011) Explaining discrepancies between the sum of subtest scale-scores to total scale-scores.Royal KD, O’Neill TR. | Rasch Measurement Transactions 2011; 25(3):1338.
  • (2011) Performance on the American Board of Family Medicine Certification examination: Are superior test taking skills alone sufficient to pass?O’Neill TR, Royal KD, Puffer JC. | Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 2011 Mar-Apr;24(2):175-80.
  • (2011) Evaluating the construct equivalence of the Spanish version of the American Board of Family Medicine In-Training Examination.O’Neill TR, Raddatz M, Royal KD. | The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment 2011; 6(2):31-41.
  • (2011) Evaluating the due process and crime control perspectives using Rasch measurement analysis.Edkins VA, Royal KD. | Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation 2011; 7(16):48-65.
  • (2011) Using the CUTLO procedure to investigate guessing.Royal KD, O’Neill TO. | Rasch Measurement Transactions 2011; 251(1):1319-1320.
  • (2011) Measuring education majors’ perceptions of academic misconduct: An Item Response Theory perspective.Royal KD, Parrent J, Clark R. | International Journal for Education Integrity 2011; 7(1):18-29.
  • (2011) Media Review: Demonstrating Student Success: A practical guide to outcomes-based assessment of learning and development in student affairs.Royal KD. | Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice 2011; 48(3):381-383.
  • (2010) Rating scale optimization in survey research: An application of the Rasch Rating Scale Model.Royal KD, Ensslen A, Ellis A, Homan, A. | Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods 2010 Winter; 5(4):607-617. Available at:,issue-4/7_royal_ellis_ensslen_homan.php.
  • (2010) Evaluating faculty perceptions of student learning outcomes: A Rasch Measurement Analysis.Royal KD. | Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation 2010 Aug; 6(14):18-31.
  • (2010) Making meaningful measurement in survey research: A demonstration of the utility of the Rasch model.Royal KD. | IR Applications 2010; 28:1-16.
  • (2010) Exploring community college faculty perceptions of student outcomes: findings of a pilot study.Royal KD, Eli JA, Bradley KD. | Community College Journal of Research and Practice 2010; 34(7):523-540.
  • (2010) How skeptical are magicians?Royal KD. | Rasch Measurement Transactions 2010; 24(3):1291.
  • (2008) An investigation of ‘honesty check’ items in higher education course evaluations.Bradley KD, Royal KD, Bradley WB. | Journal of College Teaching and Learning 2008 Aug; 5(8):39-48.
  • (2008) What constitutes good educational research? A consideration of ethics, methods, and theory.Bradley KD, Royal KD, Cunningham JC, Eli JA, Weber J. | Mid-Western Educational Research Journal 2008 Winter; 21(1):26-35.
  • (2006) Applying the Rasch Rating Scale Model to gain insights into students’ conceptualization of quality mathematics instruction.Bradley KD, Sampson SO, Royal KD. | Mathematics Education Research Journal 2006 Oct; 18(2):11-26.
  • (2005) Interactive television courses and students’ satisfaction.Royal KD, Bradley KD. | Journal of Distance Learning Administration 2005; 8(4).
  • (2005) Evaluating interactive television (ITV) courses: An identification of factors associated with student satisfaction.Royal KD, Bradley KD, Lineberry GT. | Journal of Distance Learning Administration 2005; 8(2).