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Kenneth Royal, PhD, MSEd

Assistant Professor, Educational Assessment & Outcomes

Office: 919.513.6100

Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2013-present
Director of Assessment & Evaluation, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2013-2014
Director of the Medical Education Research Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2013-2014
Psychometrician, American Board of Family Medicine, 2009-2012
Adjunct Professor, Department of Educational Leadership Studies, University of Kentucky 2008-2013
Adjunct Professor, Department of Educational Policy Studies & Evaluation, University of Kentucky, 2008-2013
Assistant Director/Acting Director, Office of Assessment, University of Kentucky, 2008-2009
Teaching Assistant, College of Education, University of Kentucky, 2006-2007
Research Assistant, Colleges of Education and Engineering, University of Kentucky, 2003-2007
PhD, Higher Education – Measurement & Evaluation, University of Kentucky, 2008
MSEd, Higher Education, University of Kentucky, 2003
BS, Business Administration, Alice Lloyd College, 2002
  • (In Press) Turning a blind eye: How lack of communication with ER nurses nearly cost a patient permanent vision lossRoyal, K., & Kedrowicz, A. A. | Journal of Patient Experience In Press
  • (2016) Social media and impression management: Veterinary Medicine students’ and faculty members’ attitudes toward the acceptability of social media postsKedrowicz, A. A., Royal, K., & Flammer, K. | Journal of Advances in Medical Education and Professionalism 4(4), 155-162
  • (2016) Investigating the association between demographic characteristics and beliefs about animal afterlife: Results from a national studyRoyal, K. D., Kedrowicz, A. A., & Snyder, A. | Anthrozoos 29(3), 409-420
  • (2015) Measuring factors that influence decisions to become a veterinarianRoyal, K. D., Schoenfeld-Tacher, R., Kedrowicz, A. A., Hardie, E. M., & Flammer, K. | Research and Development in Medical Education 4(1), 23-29
  • (2016) The Severity of Nasal Inflammatory Disease Questionnaire for Canine Idiopathic Rhinitis Control: Instrument Development and Initial Validity Evidence.Greene LM, Royal KD, Bradley JM, Lascelles BD, Johnson LR, Hawkins EC. | J Vet Intern Med. 2016 Dec 25. doi: 10.1111/jvim.14629. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 28019044
  • (2016) An evaluation of the psychometric properties of an advising survey for medical and professional program students.Royal KD, Gonzalez LM. | Journal of Educational Developmental Psychology 2016;6(1).Epub
  • (2016) Exploring aberrant responses using person fit and person response functions.Walker, A. A., Engelhard, G., Royal, K. D., & Hedgpeth, M.W. | Journal of Applied Measurement.
  • (2016) A Guide for Making Valid Interpretations about Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) Results.Royal, K. D. | Journal of Veterinary Medical Education.
  • (2016) More on Diversity and Inclusion in Academic Medicine: The Isolation of Black Females.Royal, K. D., Cannedy, A. L., & Dent, G. A. | Academic Medicine
  • (2016) Good Teaching is Not a Race to Cover Content: Less Can Be More.Royal, K. D., & Zakrajsek, T. | Ear, Nose & Throat Journal.
  • (2016) The “10 Most Wanted” test cheaters in medical education.Royal, K. D., Hedgpeth, M., Mulkey, J. R., & Fremer, J. | Medical Education.
  • (2016) Comparing veterinary student and faculty perceptions of academic misconduct.Royal, K. D., Schoenfeld-Tacher, R., & Flammer, K. | International Research in Higher Education 2016, 1(1), 81-90.
  • ( 2016) More on standard setting.Royal, K. D. | The Clinical Teacher 2016, 13(1):82.
  • (2016) Comparing 10 years of veterinary medical students’ attitudes, uses, and comfortability with technologyRoyal, K. D., Hedgpeth, M.W., & McWhorter, D. | JME Medical Education.
  • (2016) A method for investigating “instructional familiarityRoyal, K. D., Hedgpeth, M. W., Smith, K. W., & Kirk, D. | Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research.
  • (2015) Writer’s workshop: Teaching preclinical medical students the art of the patient “write-up”.Bynum, D. L., Colford, C., and Royal, K. D. (forthcoming). | The Clinical Teacher.
  • (2014). Social Network Analysis and Rasch Measurement as Complementary Methods.Royal, K. D., & Akers, L. | Rasch Measurement Transactions, 28(2), 1466-1467.
  • (2014). A student-led methodology for evaluating curricular redundancy,Royal, K. D., Gilliland, K. O., & Dent, G. A. | Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, 10, 1-8.
  • (2014). The consequential validity of ABFM examinations.Royal, K. D., & Puffer, J. C. | Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 27(3), 430-431.
  • (2014). Predictors of successful recertification of Family Physicians: An empirical investigation of community size and organization of practice.Schulte, B. M., Mannino, D. M., Royal, K. D., Walsh, S., Peterson, L., & Puffer, J. C. | Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 27(3), 383-390.
  • (2014). Are repeat exam scores trustworthy? A note about measurement error and the need for genuine instructional remediation.Royal, K. D., Kernick, E. T., & Gilliland, K. O. | Medical Science Educator, 24(1), 39-41.
  • (2014). Using Rasch measurement to score, evaluate, and improve examinations in an anatomy course.Royal, K. D., Gilliland, K. O., & Kernick, E. T. | Anatomical Sciences Education, doi: 10.1002/ase.1436.
  • (2013). A psychometric validation of the Beliefs toward Mental Illness Scale.Royal, K. D., & Thompson, J. M. | Journal of Nursing Measurement, 21(3), 516-524.
  • (2013). Book Review: Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences.Royal, K. D. | Psychometrika.
  • (2013). Is now the time for a Rasch measurement MOOC?Royal, K. D., & Lybarger, M. | Rasch Measurement Transactions, 27(3), 1437-1438.
  • (2013). Developing a psychometric ruler: An alternative presentation of Rasch Measurement output.Royal, K. D., & Eli, J. A. | Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods, 8(3), 1-10.
  • (2013). A cautionary tale about item equating with fluctuating samples.Royal, K. D. & Raddatz, M. M. | Rasch Measurement Transactions, 27(2), p. 1417.
  • (2013). Investigating guessing strategies and their success rates on items of varying difficulty levels.Royal, K. D., & Hedgpeth, M. W. | Rasch Measurement Transactions, 27(1), 1407-1408.
  • (2013). A closer look at recertification candidates pass rates.Royal, K. D., & Puffer, J. C. | Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 26(4)342-344.
  • (2013). Criterion-Referenced Examinations: Implications for the Reporting and Interpretation of Examination Results.Royal, K. D., & Puffer, J. C. | Annals of Family Medicine, 11, 185-187.
  • (2013). Social achievement goals: Validation among rural African-American adolescents.Jones, M. H., Mueller, C. E., Royal, K. D., Shim, S. S., & Hart, C. O. | Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 31(6), 566-577.
  • (2013). Achievement goal validation among African-American high school students: CFA and Rasch results.Hart, C.O, Mueller, C. E., Royal, K. D., & Jones, M. H. | Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 31(3), 284-299.
  • (2013). Using Rasch measurement to objectively measure change across time in higher education research.Royal, K. D., & Gregg, J. | Journal of Assessment and Institutional Effectiveness, 3(1), 19-32.
  • (2013). Dimensionality of the Maintenance of Certification in Family Practice examination: Evidence of construct validity.Royal, K. D., & Puffer, J. C. | Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 26(3), 342-344.
  • (2013). A more accurate pain scale.Royal, K. D. & Brosh, A. | Rasch Measurement Transactions, 26(4), p. 1398.
  • (2012). Understanding the “Sum of subtest to overall score discrepancy” on the Maintenance of Certification-Family Practice examination.Royal, K.D., & Puffer, J. C. | Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 25(2), 260-261.
  • (2012). Using stylometrics to investigate New Testament authorship.Royal, K. D. | Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, 8(19), 1-7.
  • (2012). Measuring Protestant Christians willingness to seek professional psychological help for mental illness: A Rasch Measurement analysis.Royal, K. D., & Thompson, J. M. | Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 31(3), 195-104.
  • (2012). Measuring Liberal/Conservative Voting Tendencies among U.S. Senators.Royal, K. D. | Rasch Measurement Transactions, 26(2), 1366-1367.
  • (2012). Cheating: Its implications for American Board of Family Medicine examinees.Royal, K. D., & Puffer, J. C. | Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 25(3), 400-401.
  • (2012). A suggestion for taking Rasch-based survey results even further.Royal, K. D. | Rasch Measurement Transactions, 25(4), p. 1341.
  • (2011). The reliability of ABFM examinations: Implications for test-takers.Royal, K. D., & Puffer, J. C. | Annals of Family Medicine, 9(5), p. 1303-1304.
  • (2011). A survey of attitudes about methods of assessment.Eubanks, D. A., & Royal, K. D. | Assessment Update, 23(3), 1-15.
  • (2011). Psychometric properties of the Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) among terminally ill cancer patients.Royal, K. D., & Elahi, F. | Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 29(4), 359-371.
  • (2011). Understanding reliability in higher education student learning outcomes assessment.Royal, K. D. | Quality Assurance i Higher Education, 2(2), 8-15.
  • (2011). Explaining discrepancies between the sum of subtest scale-scores to total scale-scores.Royal, K. D., & O’Neill, T. R. | Rasch Measurement Transactions, 25(3), 1338.
  • (2011). Performance on the American Board of Family Medicine Certification examination: Are superior test taking skills alone sufficient to pass?O’Neill, T. R., Royal, K. D., & Puffer, J. C. | Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 24(2), 175-180.
  • (2011). Evaluating the construct equivalence of the Spanish version of the American Board of Family Medicine In-Training Examination.O’Neill, T. R., Raddatz, M., & Royal, K. D. | The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment, 6(2), 31-41.
  • (2011). Evaluating the due process and crime control perspectives using Rasch measurement analysis.Edkins, V. A., & Royal, K. D. | Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, 7(16), 48-65.
  • (2011). Using the CUTLO procedure to investigate guessing.Royal, K. D., & O’Neill, T. O. | Rasch Measurement Transactions, 25(1), 1319-1320.
  • (2011). Measuring education majors’ perceptions of academic misconduct: An Item Response Theory perspective.Royal, K. D., Parrent, J., & Clark, R. | International Journal for Education Integrity, 7(1), 18-29.
  • (2011). Review of Demonstrating Student Success: A practical guide to outcomes-based assessment of learning and development in student affairs.Royal, K. D. | Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 48(3), 381-383.
  • (2010). Rating scale optimization in survey research: An application of the Rasch Rating Scale Model.Royal, K. D., Ensslen, A., Ellis, A., & Homan, A. | Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods, 5(4). Available at:,issue-4/7_royal_ellis_ensslen_homan.php.
  • (2010). Evaluating faculty perceptions of student learning outcomes: A Rasch Measurement Analysis.Royal, K. D. | Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, 6(14), 18-31.
  • (2010). Making meaningful measurement in survey research: A demonstration of the utility of the Rasch model.Royal, K. D. | IR Applications, 28, 1-16.
  • (2010). A pilot study exploring community college faculty perceptions regarding student outcomes.Royal, K. D., Eli, J. A., & Bradley, K. D. | Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 34(7), 523-540.
  • (2010). How skeptical are magicians?Royal, K. D. | Rasch Measurement Transactions, 24(3), 1291.
  • (2008). An investigation of ‘honesty check’ items in higher education course evaluations.Bradley, K. D., Royal, K. D., & Bradley, W. B. | Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 5(8), 39-47.
  • (2008). What constitutes good educational research? A consideration of ethics, methods, and theory.Bradley, K. D., Royal, K. D., Cunningham, J. C., Eli, J. A., & Weber, J. | Mid-Western Educational Research Journal, Winter.
  • (2006). Applying the Rasch Rating Scale Model to gain insights into students’ conceptualization of quality mathematics instruction.Bradley, K. D., Sampson, S. O., & Royal, K. D. | Mathematics Education Research Journal, Special Issue: Research in Mathematics Education: Insights from Rasch Measurement.
  • (2005). Interactive television courses and students’ satisfaction.Royal, K. D., & Bradley, K. D. | Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 8(4).
  • (2005). Evaluating interactive television (ITV) courses: An identification of factors associated with student satisfaction.Royal, K. D., Bradley, K. D., and Lineberry, G. T. | Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 8(2).