January CVM Research Roundup

A look at some of the newest published studies coming out of the NC State College of Veterinary Medicine.

  1. A study published in the Equine Veterinary Journal takes a close look at an important bacterial cause of foal pneumonia.  The work, co-authored by Gustavo Machado, investigated the prevalence of the bacterium Rhodococcus equi in the nasal cavity of healthy horses in order to better understand its epidemiology, including its antimicrobial susceptibility. The study found that R. equi is likely a minor part of normal bacteria in the nasal cavity and suggested further study into whether it is found in iron-rich soils.

Machado is also co-author on a study exploring intramuscular mineral supplementation as part of proper nutrition and metabolism development in newborn dairy calves.

The study, published in Microbial Pathogenesis, found that mineral supplementation based on selenium, copper, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus has beneficial effects, including improved immunity and bacterial infection minimization, and that is considered an interesting approach to preventing high mortality rates.

Read the foal pneumonia study here.

Read the mineral supplementation study here.  

2. A pilot study of nasal inhalation of manganese found increased olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb concentrations of the chemical.

The research, published in Neurotoxicology, also found that nasal instillation of manganese resulted in inflammatory changes to the olfactory epithelium, but injury to the olfactory bulb did not occur. The information contributes to a growing understanding of the consequences of manganese inhalation in people; high doses of exposure produces a form of Parkinsonism in humans. Co-authors of the study are David Dorman, Samantha Traver, Taylor Francher and Melanie Foster.

Read the study here.

3. Dogs possess a powerful sense of smell, but can they detect cancer in other dogs?

A feasibility study, published in Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports, trained scent detection dogs to see if they could distinguished urine samples from dogs with urinary tract cancer and those without. The work found a variable ability dogs in scent detection of cancer.

Co-authors are Paul Hess, Katherine Fernhoff, Melanie Foster and David Dorman.

Read the study here.

A study co-authored by Greg Lewbart explores the characteristics of the Galapagos red-footed booby…

4. A study co-authored by Greg Lewbart and Diane Deresienski explores the characteristics of the Galapagos red-footed booby. The work, published in the Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, determined normal blood chemistry and other physical exam findings for the large sea bird, information that will guide future medical treatment.

Read the study here.

5. Ultrasound-guided biopsies should maximize the diagnostic quality of biopsy specimens from dogs with kidney disease, according to a study co-authored by Christopher Adin and published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.

Read the study here.

6. Veterinary Ophthalmology has published a study that comprehensively characterizes ocular and neurologic findings, causes and treatment outcomes related to canine optic neuritis.

Co-authored by Michael Davidson, Christopher Mariani, Hans Westermeyer and Sara Smith, the research looked at 96 cases over a 33-year period of dogs with the inflammatory eye disease, which damages the optic nerve, to determine its common signs and causes.

The most common clinical sign was vision loss and the most common cause was multifocal meningoencephalitis.

Read the study here.

7. A study, co-authored by Duncan Lascelles, Mathew Gerard and Masataka Enomoto, published in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, develops and tests nerve block methods for pain relief for cats with hind limb pain.

Feline pain relief is not a well-developed area of study; medications may cause other clinical signs. Nerve blocks allow pain relief to be provided directly to the area in need. The research pinpoints injection methods that may be the most effective techniques for feline pain relief.

Read the study here.

8. Research from Michael Nolan and Tracy Gieger on the management of radiation side effects to the skin was published as part of a special issue of Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice focused on wound management

Radiation therapy is often used with oncologic patients. Among the findings of the study: Careful radiation treatment planning and managing side effects are essential to prevent long-term conditions, and while there is no census for the best management practices, treatments include oral steroids, antibiotics and barrier protectants.

The same issue also features a study on severe burn wounds, co-authored by Alessio Vigani and Christine Culler.

The study looks at the long-term management of burn injuries, including critical aspects of management, likely respiratory injury related to such conditions and the profound metabolic changes in patients with severe burns.

Read the radiation side effects study here.

Read the burn management study here.

9. A new study from lead researcher Jody Gookin sheds light on the contributing causes of an emerging canine gallbladder disease.

The work, published in PLOS One, takes a deep look at gallbladder mucocele formation, the relentless secretion of abnormally thick mucus by the gallbladder epithelium which can lead to gallbladder rupture or bile duct obstruction.

The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation in dogs is unknown. The research found significant metabolic abnormalities in the serum and duct bile of the liver in dogs diagnosed with the condition, confirming researcher theories that mucocele formation is associated with a syndrome of metabolic disruption.

Co-authors of the study are Gabriela Seiler, John Cullen and Kyle Mathews.

Read the study here.