October 2019 Research Roundup

A look at some of the latest published research studies coming from the NC State College of Veterinary Medicine this month …

A Potential Model to Study Human Asthma

Severe equine asthma syndrome shares several features with various phenotypes of human asthma, suggesting that it can serve as an animal model for better understanding of asthma in people, according to a study co-authored by Katie Sheats and Kaori Davis.

The study, published in Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, found that the severe form of equine asthma syndrome shares clinical and pathological features with various human asthma phenotypes, including allergic, non-allergic, late onset and severe asthma.

Farmers are often exposed to organic dusts and allergens that can lead to respiratory conditions such as asthma. Horses cope with similar exposures. Equine asthma syndrome leads to conditions such as airflow obstruction and inflammation.

Read the study here.

Uncovering Antimicrobial Resistance Rates in Jordan

A study from Andy Stringer has found a heightened level of antimicrobial resistance among Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli samples taken from dairy cattle in Jordan.

The findings, which mirror the prevalence of resistant pathogens reported in other countries, highlight the need to determine the drivers of resistance in the country in order to develop effective approaches to fighting such resistance to antimicrobials. The Journal of Dairy Science published the research.

Contamination of milk with fecal material can transmit foodborne pathogens. Previous studies have found a large number of people in Jordan say they consume raw milk and dairy products.

Read the study here.

Tracking an Emerging Pathogen in Canines

Babesia vulpes infections in domestic North American dogs are commonly found in conjunction with other infections, according to a new study that also found dog-to-dog transmission is a frequent mode of transmission for the virus.

B. vulpes is one of the causes of the severe canine disease babesiosis, which can lead to thrombocytopenia, low blood platelet count, and hemolytic anemia, rapid destruction of red blood cells. The virus has been reported in European dogs and North American foxes, but has rarely been reported in domestic dogs in North America.

The research notes that B. vulpes infections are often seen with infections from other pathogens, including Babesia gibsoni. The study’s researchers took advantage of a new way to amplify B. vulpes DNA in samples from infected dogs.

The Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published the work from authors Barbara Qurollo, Erica Lemler, Ed Breitschwerdt, Adam Birkenheuer, Brittany Thomas and Nanelle Barash.

Read the study here.

Earlier Diagnosis of Canine Atopic Dermatitis

A shorter elimination diet trial to diagnose atopic dermatitis is possible if the condition is controlled at the same time with a short course of the medication prednisolone, according to new research.

The study tested the effect that prednisolone had if used during the first weeks of an elimination diet trial, with the goal of reducing the total time needed for diagnosis for dogs potentially suffering from atopic dermatitis. Food allergy is a possible cause of the condition. Veterinary Dermatology published the research with authors including Thierry Olivry, Petra Bizikova and Claude Favrot.

Researchers were able to effectively conduct diet tests earlier than eight weeks in dogs who took prednisolone during the elimination trial. A shortened trial eases the burden of owners conducting the elimination diet and can lead to earlier diagnosis.

Read the study here.

Pinpointing Medication-Related Changes in Antimicrobial Resistance

The persistence of active drugs in the intestine of cattle treated with the antibiotic ceftiofur crystalline free acid, or CCFA, has a significant effect on the concentration of E. coli in the feces and microbiome of the animal, according to a study published in PLoS One.

It is the first study to associate intestinal pharmacokinetics with changes in antimicrobial resistance in enteric E. coli and with changes in the microbiome. Researchers found that prolonged CCFA concentrations is associated with decreased E. coli concentration. Use of another drug, ceftiofur hydrochloride, led to higher intestinal drug concentrations over a shorter duration.

The study’s authors include Derek Foster, Megan Jacob, Kyle Farmer, Benjamin Callahan, Casey Theriot, Timo Prange and Mark Papich.

Read the study here.

Understanding GI Anatomy of Turtles

An analysis of the gastrointestinal tract of eastern box turtles has established anatomical reference points, pivotal information needed to understand and combat GI disorders in the animal.

GI disorders are an important cause of morbidity in box turtles, but published material on the subject is lacking. The study is the first published work to evaluate normal contrast radiography and GI contrast transit times in healthy eastern box turtles, leading to information on transit and emptying times. The study is also the first to evaluate three-view contrast radiography in any chelonian species.

The study, published in Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, was authored by Olivia Petritz, Greg Lewbart, Mandy Womble, Eli Cohen and Emma Houck.

Read the study here.

Keeping Horses Healthy During Anesthesia

Using near-infrared spectroscopy muscle oxygenation technology is a clinically feasible way to assess tissue oxygenation in horses, which is of primary importance during equine general anesthesia, according to a study authored by Lysa Posner, Emily Griffith, Maria Killos and Ben Gingold.

Additionally, the study found that the vastus lateralis and extensor carpi ulnaris muscle sites offered the most reliable and repeatable readings when using a type of NIRS machine in horses. The study is published in Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia.

Read the study here.