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Turkey Coronavirus

The Turkey Coronavirus Workshop and 2nd Annual PEMS Workshop: Controlling the Disease was sponsored by Roche Animal Health in cooperation with the PEMS Task Force and North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine. The workshop was held May 5-6, 1998 in Raleigh, NC. In May 1999, Alpharma Inc. acquired the Roche Animal Health division. Alpharma Animal Health supports the poultry industry with professional people providing quality products and service to enhance your performance.

Alpharma (NYSE:ALO) is a growing specialty pharmaceutical company with global leadership positions in products for humans and animals. Uniquely positioned to expand internationally, Alpharma is presently active in more than 60 countries. Alpharma is the largest manufacturer of generic liquid and topical pharmaceuticals in the US and one of the largest manufacturers of generic solid dose pharmaceuticals in Europe. Alpharma is among the worl’d leading procuders of several important pharmaceutical-grade bulk antibiotics and is internationally recognized as a leading provider of of pharmaceutical products to poultry, swine, cattle, and vaccines for farmed fish worldwide.

Turkey Coronavirus Selected Bibliography

Compiled by James S. Guy, DVM, PhD
Department of Microbiology, Pathology, and Parasitology NC State Veterinary Medicine

  • Adams, N.R., and M.S. Hofstad. 1971. Isolation of transmissible enteritis agent of turkeys in avian embryos. Avian Dis 15:426–433.
  • Adams, N.R., R.A. Ball, and M.S. Hofstad. 1970. Intestinal lesions in transmissible enteritis of turkeys. Avian Dis 14:392–399.
  • Adams, N.R., R.A. Ball, C.L. Annis, and M.S. Hofstad. 1972. Ultrastructural changes in the intestines of turkey poults and embryos affected with transmissible enteritis. J Comp Pathol 82:187–192.
  • Barnes, H.J. & Guy, J.S. (1997). Poult enteritis-mortality syndrome (“spiking mortality”) of turkeys. In: B.W. Calnek, H.J. Barnes, C.W. Beard, L.R. McDougald and Y.M. Saif (Eds), Diseases of Poultry, 10th ed., pp. 1025-1031. Ames, Iowa State University Press.
  • Breslin, J. J., L. G. Smith, F. J. Fuller, and J. S. Guy. 1999a. Sequence analysis of the matrix/nucleocapsid gene region of turkey coronavirus. Intervirol 42:22-29.
  • Breslin, J. J., L. G. Smith, F. J. Fuller, and J. S. Guy. 1999b. Sequence analysis of the turkey coronavirus nucleocapsid protein gene and 3’ untranslated region identifies the virus as a close relative of infectious bronchitis virus. Virus Res 65:187-193
  • Breslin, J. J., L. G. Smith, H. J. Barnes, and J. S. Guy. 2000. Comparison of virus isolation, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction procedures for detection of turkey coronavirus. Avian Dis 44:624-631.
  • Breslin, J. J., L. G. Smith, and J. S. Guy. 2001. Baculovirus expression of turkey coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. Avian Dis. In Press.
  • Cavanagh, D., Brian, D. A., Brinton, M. A., Eujuanes, L., Holmes, K. V., Horzinek, M. C., Lai, M. M. C., Laude, H., Plagemann, P. G. W., Siddell, S. G., Spann, W., Taguchi, F. & Talbot, P. J. 1997. Nidovirales: a new order comprising Coronaviridae and Arteriviridae. Arch Virol 142:629-633.
  • Dea, S., G. Marsolais, J. Beaubien, and R. Ruppanner. 1986. Coronaviruses associated with outbreaks of transmissible enteritis of turkeys in Quebec: hemagglutination properties and cell cultivation. Avian Dis 30:319–326.
  • Dea, S., S. Garzon, and P. Tijssen. 1989. Isolation and trypsin-enhanced propagation of turkey enteric (bluecomb) coronaviruses in a continuous human rectal adenocarcinoma cell line. Am J Vet Res 50:1310–1318.
  • Dea, S., A. J. Verbeek, and P. Tijssen, P. 1990. Antigenic and genomic relationships among turkey and bovine enteric coronaviruses. J Virol 64:3112-3118.
  • Dea, S., A. Verbeek, and P. Tijssen. 1991. Transmissible enteritis of turkeys: experimental inoculation studies with tissue-culture-adapted turkey and bovine coronaviruses. Avian Dis 35:767-777.
  • Deshmukh, D.R., and B.S. Pomeroy. 1974. Physicochemical characterization of a bluecomb coronavirus of turkeys. Am J Vet Res 35:1549–1552.
  • Deshmukh, D.R., C.T. Larsen, S.K. Dutta, and B.S. Pomeroy. 1969. Characterization of pathogenic filtrate and viruses isolated from turkeys with bluecomb. Am J Vet Res 30:1019– 1025.
  • Deshmukh, D.R., C.T. Larsen, and B.S. Pomeroy. 1973. Survival of bluecomb agent in embryonating turkey eggs and cell cultures. Am J Vet Res 34:673–675.
  • Dziuk, H.E., G.E. Duke, and O.A. Evanson. 1970. Milk replacer, electrolytes, and glucose for treating bluecomb in turkeys. Poult Sci 49:226–229.
  • Enjuanes, L., D. Brian, D. Cavanagh, K. Holmes, M. Lai, H. Laude, P. Masters, P. Rottier, S. Siddell, W. Spaan, F. Taguchi, and P. Talbot. Coronaviridae. In: Virus taxonomy: seventh report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. M. Regenmortel, C. Fauquet, D. Bishop, E. Carstens, M. Estes, S. Lemon, J. Maniloff, M. Mayo, D. McGeoch, C. Pringle and R. B. Wickner. Academic Press, San Diego. pp. 835-849. 2000.
  • Gonder, E., B.L. Patel, and B.S. Pomeroy. 1976. Scanning electron, light, and immunofluorescent microscopy of coronaviral enteritis of turkeys (bluecomb). Am J Vet Res 37:1435–1439.
  • Guy, J. S. 1998. New methods for diagnosis of turkey coronavirus infections. In: Proc 49th North Central Avian Dis Conf, Indianapolis, Indiana, pp. 8-10.
  • Guy, J. S. 2000. Turkey coronavirus is more closely related to avian infectious bronchitis virus than to mammalian coronaviruses: a review. Avian Path 29:207-212.
  • Guy, J. S., H. J. Barnes, L. G. Smith, and J. Breslin. 1997. Antigenic characterization of a turkey coronavirus identified in poult enteritis and mortality syndrome-affected turkeys. Avian Dis 41:583-590.
  • Guy, J. S., H. J. Barnes, L. G. Smith, and J. J. Breslin. 1999. Experimental infection of specific- pathogen-free chickens with turkey coronavirus. Proc 48th Western Poultry Disease Conference, Vancouver, B. C. pp. 91-92.
  • Guy, J. S., L. G. Smith, J. J. Breslin, J. P. Vaillancourt, and H. J. Barnes. 2000. High mortality and growth depression experimentally produced in young turkeys by dual infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and turkey coronavirus. Avian Dis 44:105-113.
  • Hofstad, M.S., N. Adams, and M. L. Frey. 1969. Studies on a filterable agent associated with infectious enteritis (bluecomb) of turkeys. Avian Dis 13:386–393.
  • Holmes, K. V. and M. M. C. Lai. 1996. Coronaviridae. In: B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howly (eds.), Fundamental Virology, 3rd ed., Vol. 1. Lippencott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, pp. 1075-1093.
  • Hooper, T. A. and J. S. Guy. 1998. Identification of turkey coronavirus infections in commercial turkey flocks. Proc. 47th Western Poult Dis Conf. Sacramento, CA, pg. 42.
  • Ismail, M. M., K. O. Cho, L. A. Ward, L. J. Saif, and Y. M. Saif. 2001. Experimental bovine coronavirus in turkey poults and young chickens. Avian Dis. In press.
  • Lai, M. M. C. & Cavanagh, D. (1997). The molecular biology of coronaviruses. Advances in Virus Research, 48, 1-100.
  • Larsen, C.T. 1979. The etiology of bluecomb disease of turkeys. PhD thesis. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis-St. Paul.
  • Loa, C. C., T. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, T. A. Bryan, H. L. Thacker, T. Hooper, and D. Schrader. 2000. Detection of antibody to turkey coronavirus by antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay utilizing infectious bronchitis virus antigen. Avian Dis 44:498-506.
  • Nagaraja, K.V., and B.S. Pomeroy. 1978. Secretory antibodies against turkey coronaviral enteritis. Am J Vet Res 39:1463–1465.
  • Nagaraja, K.V., and B.S. Pomeroy. 1980a. Cell-mediated immunity against turkey coronaviral enteritis (bluecomb). Am J Vet Res 41:915–917.
  • Nagaraja, K.V., and B.S. Pomeroy. 1980b. Immunofluorescent studies on localization of secretory immunoglobulins in the intestines of turkeys recovered from turkey coronaviral enteritis. Am J Vet Res 41:1283–1284.
  • Nagaraja, K. V. and B. S. Pomeroy. 1997. Coronaviral enteritis of turkeys (bluecomb disease). In: Diseases of Poultry, 10th ed. B. W. Calnek, H. J. Barnes, C. W. Beard, L. R. McDougald and Y. M. Saif, eds. Iowa State University Press, Ames. pp. 686-692.
  • Naqi, S. A. 1993. Coronaviral enteritis of turkeys. In: Virus infections of birds. J. B. McFerran and M. S. McNulty, eds. Elsiever Science Publishers, New York. Pp. 277-281.
  • Naqi, S.A., C.F. Hall, and D.H. Lewis. 1971. The intestinal microflora of turkeys: Comparison of apparently healthy and bluecomb-infected turkey poults. Avian Dis 15:14–21.
  • Naqi, S.A., B. Panigrahy, and C.F. Hall. 1972. Bursa of Fabricius, a source of bluecomb infectious agent. Avian Dis 16:937–939.
  • Panigrahy, B., S.A. Naqi, and C.F. Hall. 1973. Isolation and characterization of viruses associated with transmissible enteritis (bluecomb) of turkeys. Avian Dis 17:430–438.
  • Patel, B.L., D.R. Deshmukh, and B.S. Pomeroy. 1975. Fluorescent antibody test for rapid diagnosis of coronaviral enteritis of turkeys (bluecomb). Am J Vet Res 36:1265–1267.
  • Patel, B.L., B.S. Pomeroy, E. Gonder, and C.E. Cronkite. 1976. Indirect fluorescent antibody test for the diagnosis of coronaviral enteritis of turkeys (bluecomb). Am J Vet Res 37:1111–1112.
  • Patel, B.L., E. Gonder, and B.S. Pomeroy. 1977. Detection of turkey coronaviral enteritis (bluecomb) in field epiornithics, using the direct and indirect fluorescent antibody tests. Am J Vet Res 38:1407–1411.
  • Peterson, E.H., and T.A. Hymas. 1951. Antibiotics in the treatment of unfamiliar turkey disease. Poult Sci 30:466–468.
  • Pomeroy, B.S., and J.M. Sieburth. 1953. Bluecomb disease of turkeys. Proc 90th Annu Meet Am Vet Med Assoc, pp. 321–328.
  • Pomeroy, B.S. C.T. Larsen, D.R. Deshmukh, and B.L. Patel. 1975. Immunity to transmissible (coronaviral) enteritis of turkeys (bluecomb). Am J Vet Res 36:553–555.
  • Pomeroy, K.A., B.L. Patel, C.T. Larsen, and B.S. Pomeroy. 1978. Combined immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopic studies of sequential intestinal samples from turkey embryos and poults infected with turkey enteritis coronavirus. Am J Vet Res 39:1348–1354.
  • Reynolds, D., and B. S. Pomeroy. 1989. Enteric viruses. In H. G. Purchase, L. H. Arp, C. H. Domermuth, and J. E. Pearson (eds.). Isolation and identification of avian pathogens. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Kennett Square, PA, pp. 128-134.
  • Ritchie, A.E., D.R. Deshmukh, C.T. Larsen, and B.S. Pomeroy. 1973. Electron microscopy of coronavirus-like particles characteristic of turkey bluecomb disease. Avian Dis 17:546–558.
  • Rives, D. V. and D. B. Crumpler. 1998. Effect of turkey coronavirus infection on commercial turkey flock performance. Proc Am Vet Med Assoc Annual Convention, July 28, 1998, Baltimore. Pg. 189.
  • Robb, J.A. & Bond, C.W. (1979). Coronaviridae. In: H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R.R. Wagner (Eds), Comprehensive Virology, pp. 193-247. Vol. 14. New York, Plenum Press.
  • Siddell, S. G. 1995. The Coronaviridae: an introduction. In: Coronaviridae, S. Siddell, ed., Plenum Press, Inc. New York, pp. 1-9.
  • Sieburth, J.M., and E.P. Johnson. 1957. Transmissible enteritis of turkeys (bluecomb disease). I. Preliminary studies. Poult Sci 36:256–261.
  • Sieburth, J.M., and B.S. Pomeroy. 1956. Bluecomb disease of turkeys. II. Antibiotic treatment of poults. J Am Vet Med Assoc 128:509–513.
  • Stephensen, C.B., D. B. Casebolt, and N. N. Gangopadhyay 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of a highly conserved region of the polymerase gene from eleven coronaviruses and development of a consensus polymerase chain reaction assay. Virus Res 60:181-189.
  • Sturman, L.S. & Holmes, K.V. (1983). The molecular biology of coronaviruses. Advances in Virus Research, 28, 35-112.
  • Truscott, R.B. 1968. Transmissible enteritis of turkeys – disease reproduction. Avian Dis 12:239– 245.
  • Tumlin, J.T., and B.S. Pomeroy. 1958. Bluecomb disease of turkeys. V. Preliminary studies on parental immunity and serum neutralization. Am J Vet Res 19:725–728.
  • Tumlin, J.T., B.S. Pomeroy, and R.K. Lindorfer. 1957. Bluecomb disease of turkeys. IV. Demonstration of a filterable agent. J Am Vet Med Assoc 130:360–365.
  • Verbeek, A., S. Dea, and P. Tijssen, P. 1991. Genomic relationship between turkey and bovine enteric coronaviruses identified by hybridization with BCV or TCOV specific cDNA probes. Arch Virol 121:199-211.
  • Verbeek, A. and P. Tijssen, P. 1991. Sequence analysis of the turkey enteric coronavirus nucleocapsid and membrane protein genes: a close genomic relationship with bovine coronavirus. J Gen Virol 72:1659-66.
  • Watson, D. W., J. S. Guy, and S. M. Stringham. 2000. Limited transmission of turkey coronavirus in young turkeys by adult Alphitobius diapernius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J Med Entomol 37:480-483.
  • Wege, H., Siddel, S. & ter Meulen, V. 1982. The biology and pathogenesis of coronaviruses. Current Topics Microbiol Immunol 99:165-200.

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