September 2019 Research Roundup

A look at some of the latest published research studies coming from the NC State College of Veterinary Medicine this month …


Treating Horse Limb Wounds

Equine amniotic membrane allografts increase granulation tissue production while maintaining appropriate wound healing, according to a study published in Veterinary Surgery.

The research explores growth factors in the allografts and evaluates the effect on distal limb wound healing in horses. The allografts are likely to be most beneficial in treating substantial wounds when production of large amounts of granulation tissue is needed.

Lower leg wounds are common in horses and often extensive, leading to longer repair times and higher risk of infection. Study authors include Lauren Schnabel, Timo Prange, Jennifer Gilbertie and Alex Fowler.

Read the study here.


Feasibility of Apheresis for Small Dogs

Apheresis, collecting blood from a patient or donor for retransfusion, can be used safely with very small dogs, according to a CVM study. The study’s findings helps inform physicians considering using the procedure on children with very low body weights.

The study, published in Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis, uses different apheresis systems on dogs weighing between 10 and 17 pounds for stem cell transplantations and treatment of immune-mediated disease.

The research notes no adverse effects following apheresis, though mentions that close attention should be paid to hemodynamic stability and citrate toxicity. 

Steven Suter, Christine Culler and Scott Taylor are among the study’s authors.

Read the study here.


New Way to Administer Medicine to Rays

The mesopterygial vein of the fin is an alternate site for quick and reliable treatment access for species of rays, according to a new study published in the Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine.

Intravascular access to rays, members of the batoid species, is typically achieved through the ventral coccygeal or radial wing vessels. Those approaches can be difficult because of cartilage, species variation and other factors.

The study uses contrast radiography to develop landmarks for new and dependable vascular access in three species: the Atlantic stingray, cownose ray and smooth butterfly ray. Researchers also note the different angle degree directions needed for needle insertion to administer fluid and intravascular medicine.

Michael Stoskopf, Heather Broadhurst, Emily Christiansen, Kate Archibald and Lori Westmoreland authored the research.

Read the study here.


Preventing Parasite Infections in Cats

Lactic acid bacteria enterococci inhibits the growth of the feline Tritrichomonas foetus parasite in vitro, according to a study co-authored by Jody Gookin and appearing in Veterinary Parasitology. 

The research found that enterococci reduces T. foetus adhesion, but not cytotoxicity, toward intestinal epithelium. T. foetus is a common cause of large bowel diarrhea in cats. The results suggest possible benefits of using enterococci-containing probiotics to prevent T. foetus infection in at-risk, uninfected cats.

Read the study here.


Uncovering PRRSV Vaccine Development Clues

TCR-yδ T cells play a crucial role a pig’s lymphatic system response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, or PRRSV, according to new research published in Viruses. 

PRRSV leads to reproductive failure in breeding pigs and causes respiratory illness in young pigs. Though PRRSV vaccines are available, most struggle to protect against the plethora of PRRSV strains. By analyzing T-cell response to type-2 PRRSV, the study offers valuable information for improving PRRSV vaccine development.

The study’s authors include Tobias Kaeser, Glen Almond, Elena Crisci and Jonathan Fogle.

Read the study here.


Discovering a New Vector-Borne Equine Infection

A study from Ed Breitschwerdt, Barbara Qurollo and Jeffrey Tyrrell is the first known report of Rickettsia felis infection in a horse and outlines common vector-borne disease-causing agents in Nicaraguan horses.

  1. felis is a bacterium that causes cat-flea typhus in humans. Human cases of infection have been reported. The study, published in Acta Tropica, also identifies a new tick-borne organism, Ehrlichia sp. H7, prevalent in horses in Mérida, Nicaragua. It notes the most common pathogens found in horses in the town are Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. Vector-borne disease impact the health and welfare of horses worldwide.

Read the study here.


Improving Surgical Approaches for Musculoskeletal Damage

A study from Natasha Olby offers evidence that minimally invasive microsurgery can effectively treat intervertebral disc protrusion in large breed dogs.

The surgical approach, using intraoperative fluoroscopy imaging and a small incision, led to limited muscle trauma, early neurological improvement, a short hospital stay and limited postoperative pain, according to the study which explored surgery on a German shepherd. 

Intervertebral disc protrusion results from progressive degenerative changes seen in adult and elderly dogs. The study is published in Veterinary Surgery.

Read the study here.