Small Animal Services: Medical Oncology

The Oncology Service at North Carolina State University offers a full range of diagnostic and therapeutic options for pets with cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, electrochemotherapy, immunotherapy, and bone marrow transplants.

Our medical oncology service is staffed by a dedicated team of veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and clinician-scientists. Our mission is to be a premier veterinary oncology program in the US, as evidenced by our commitment to compassionate patient care, collaborative research, and innovation in cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.

Our teaching hospital provides a comprehensive range of specialties, located conveniently within the same building. The medical oncology team partners with other departments including clinical pathology, dentistry, dermatology, emergency/critical care, histopathology, internal medicine, neurology, ophthalmology, radiology and surgery. Emergency and critical care services are available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year should your pet require emergent care.

We work closely with the Family and Community Services team to provide support for owners dealing with difficult medical decisions and end of life care. Our hospital is one of only a handful of veterinary facilities in the country to include a social worker on the veterinary medical team with the goal of providing family-centered care.

Client Resources for Pets with Cancer

Canine Lymphoma

What is lymphoma?

Lymphoma is a cancer of lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell. Lymphoma most often affects lymph nodes (glands). It can also affect the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and other sites.

We diagnose lymphoma by inserting a small needle into enlarged lymph nodes and removing some cells. The cells are examined under a microscope. A diagnosis may require a biopsy or collection of cells or fluid from other sites.

Further testing (staging) is recommended. Complete staging includes bloodwork (complete blood count with review of a blood smear and serum chemistry panel), urinalysis, thoracic radiographs (x-rays), abdominal ultrasound, bone marrow aspiration, and phenotyping. These tests provide a baseline for future monitoring. They provide information about the patient’s overall health. Results may influence treatment recommendations. They can also help anticipate complications. Staging can help predict prognosis.
Information & Resources 

Bone Marrow Transplant

Bone marrow is found within your bones and bone marrow stem cells are the source of all the blood cells needed
for life. We can cause these stem cells to leave the bone marrow (with a medication called Neupogen) and travel out into the peripheral blood, where we can collect them using a sophisticated apheresis machine. The apheresis machine painlessly takes blood out of the patient, removes the needed stem cells, and puts all the other blood cells back into the dog.

During apheresis, the dogs are anesthetized so they don’t move around for ~4-5 hours. Once cells are collected, the dogs undergo total body irradiation in an attempt to kill all the remaining cancer cells in the body. This treatment also kills all the bone marrow in the body, which is why we need to replace it with the peripheral blood stem cells we previously harvested. Once these cells are put back into the dogs with an IV catheter, the transplant is complete.

Information & Resources 

Bone Tumors

Classification of Bone Tumors?

Bone tumors can arise directly from bone or may occur as a metastatic lesion from an underlying cancer outside of the skeleton. The most common primary bone tumor in dogs is osteosarcoma. Other bone tumors include chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, liposarcoma, histiocytic sarcoma, multiple myeloma, and metastatic tumors.

Osteosarcoma tumors of the appendicular skeleton (long bones of the limbs) are locally invasive and have a high rate of metastases (most commonly lungs and other bones).  Osteosarcoma tumors can also occur in the axial skeleton (the bones of the skull, spinal column, pelvis, and ribs). Tumors of these locations tend to have a decreased rate of metastasis compared to those of the limbs.

It is important to differentiate osteosarcoma from other tumor types and diseases that occur within bones, such as bacterial, viral, or fungal infections. With infection, there is usually history of exposure to the infectious agent or traumatic injury to the affected region. Identification of the underlying cause is important, as this will influence the recommended therapeutic regimen.

Information & Resources 

Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs

What is Hemangiosarcoma?

Hemangiosarcoma is a highly malignant cancer arising from cells that normally create blood vessels. It most commonly affects the spleen, liver, right atrium of the heart, and skin. Tumors can occur in any part of the body, however. In most cases, the cause of hemangiosarcoma is unknown. Exposure to sunlight can cause skin tumors in some dogs, especially in thinly haired regions including the belly, inner thighs, and eyelids. Breeds with a predilection for non-cutaneous hemangiosarcoma include golden retrievers, Labrador retrievers and German shepherds, but any breed can be affected.

Information & Resources 

Mast Cell Tumors in Dogs

What are Mast Cell Tumors?

Mast cell tumors are comprised of mast cells, which are immune cells normally involved in allergic reactions. They are the same cells that cause the itchy, red bump you get after a mosquito bite, or the more serious reactions that occur in people allergic to peanuts or shellfish. Mast cells contain granules packed with chemicals including histamine. Release of chemicals from granules leads to the allergic reactions. Mast cell tumors occur most frequently in the skin, but other sites include the liver, spleen, gastrointestinal tract and bone marrow.

Mast cell tumors vary in appearance. Some may look like raised bumps within, or just below the surface of, the skin. Others appear as red, ulcerated, bleeding, bruised, and/or swollen growths. Some tumors appear and remain the same size for months or years, while others…

Information & Resources 

Urothelial Carcinoma

What is Urothelial carcinoma?

Urothelial carcinoma (also called transitional cell carcinoma (TCC)) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the urinary tract of dogs. Transitional cells make up the epithelial lining of the urinary tract. The areas most frequently affected include the bladder, the urethra (the tract along which urine exits the body), and the region of the trigone (the region where the bladder connects to the urethra). All regions of the urinary tract can be affected given the infiltrative nature of this cancer. Breeds at risk for developing urothelial carcinoma include Scottish Terriers, West Highland White Terriers, beagles, and Shetland sheepdogs. In male dogs, the prostate may be secondarily affected.

Information & Resources 

Feline Injection Site Sarcoma

What is Feline Injection Site Sarcoma?

Feline injection-site sarcoma arises from connective tissues. The most common injection site sarcoma in cats is a fibrosarcoma. Regardless of underlying tissue type, all injection site sarcomas behave as locally aggressive tumors with a modest chance of spread to distant sites in the body.

Injection site sarcomas arise at sites where the cat previously received an injection. Tumors are caused by vaccines (feline leukemia virus and rabies vaccines), microchips, injections of long-acting antibiotics, long-acting glucocorticoids, lufenuron, and reaction to nonabsorbable suture. Cats may be genetically predisposed to developing injection site sarcomas, though the exact nature of this relationship is unclear.

Despite the association with vaccination, the risk of not vaccinating for certain diseases may be much higher than the risk of tumor development.  Vaccine protocols and injection methods continue to be evaluated. Cat owners should talk with their family veterinarian about which vaccines, including boosters, are recommended. Cats with a history of injection-site tumors should not receive future vaccinations.

Information & Resources

Canine Apocrine Gland Anal Sac Adenocarcinoma

What is Canine Apocrine Gland Anal Sac Adenocarcinoma (AGASACA)?

Apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinomas (AGASACA) are malignant tumors of the anal glands. These are paired glands located on either side of the rectal opening. Anal glands are sweat glands that contain a brown, malodorous liquid that is eliminated upon defecation.

AGASACAs are locally invasive tumors with a high rate of metastasis to regional lymph nodes (including sublumbar and medial iliac lymph nodes inside the abdomen and inguinal nodes located in the groin). Tumors can also spread to distant sites including the liver, spleen, and lungs. Metastasis is possible even in cases where the primary tumor is only a few millimeters in size. Tumor cells sometimes secrete a hormone that causes blood levels of calcium to rise above normal. Dogs affected with high blood calcium levels show increased thirst, urination, lethargy, and in some cases this can lead to severe heart and kidney damage.

Spaniels are affected more frequently than other breeds. Typically, only one gland is affected, however disease can occur in both glands either simultaneously or several years apart.

Information & Resources

Feline Lymphoma

What is Feline Lymphoma?

Lymphoma is a cancer of the cells of the immune system called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are present throughout the body, so cats can develop lymphoma in multiple organs. Lymphoma is classified by the location of the disease (e.g. gastrointestinal tract, nasal cavity, mediastinal) and the size of the lymphocytes (large cell versus small cell). Feline lymphoma is specific to cats.

Information & Resources

Canine Lymphoma Rescue Protocols

What are the Rescue Protocols for Canine Lymphoma?

Most dogs treated with CHOP chemotherapy achieve remission. The duration of remission varies from a few months to a year or more after completion of treatment. Remission does not equal cure, and 95% of dogs relapse following treatment. We detect relapse by noting increased lymph node size. Needle aspirates are usually done to confirm relapse.

Some dogs do not respond to CHOP. Or they may relapse during treatment. The cancer cells of these dogs have developed resistance to the drugs in the CHOP protocol.

Relapse and resistance are devastating, but expected, consequences of having lymphoma. When they occur, we recommend treatment with rescue protocols. There are many options for rescue protocols. We discuss the pros and cons of each as they relate to your dog and your goals and assist you in choosing the best plan of action.

Information & Resources

Feline Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

What is Feline Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is cancer of the lining of the oral cavity, including the gingiva (gums), tongue, palate and tonsils. It is the most common oral cancer in cats. Tumors are locally invasive and can extend into the bones of the upper or lower jaw. The rate of metastasis at the time of diagnosis is low. The most common sites of metastasis are lymph nodes of the head and neck and the lungs.

Information & Resources

Canine Histiocytic Sarcoma

What is Canine Histiocytic Sarcoma?

Histiocytic sarcoma is an aggressive cancer in dogs. Different forms include localized histiocytic sarcoma, disseminated histiocytic sarcoma and hemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma.

Localized histiocytic sarcoma occurs most often in bones, joints, skin and lungs. Disseminated histiocytic sarcoma affects multiple organs/tissues at the same time. Hemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma starts within the spleen and progresses rapidly.

The most commonly affected breeds are the Bernese Mountain dog, flat-coated retriever, Rottweiler, golden retriever, Labrador retriever, miniature schnauzer and Pembroke Welsh corgi. Most dogs are middle-aged or older but histiocytic sarcoma is reported in young dogs as well.

Information & Resources

Canine Mammary Tumors

What is a Mammary Tumor?

Dogs have five pairs of mammary glands, starting with glands near the axillary (armpit) region, extending backwards to the glands located in the inguinal (groin) area. A set of five glands along either the left or right side of the body is called a mammary chain.

A mammary tumor is a tumor of the mammary tissue. They are common in un-spayed dogs and dogs spayed after their first heat cycle. Mammary tumors occur more frequently in breeds such as toy and miniature poodles, spaniels and German shepherds. Male dogs are rarely affected.

Mammary tumors vary in size, shape and consistency. They can be movable or attached to underlying tissue. Some dogs develop a single tumor in one gland while others develop multiple tumors in different glands or even within the same gland.

Mammary tumors are either malignant (cancerous) or benign (non-cancerous). The most common tumors are adenomas (benign), carcinomas (malignant) and adenocarcinomas (malignant). Dogs can have malignant and benign tumors at the same time or have a history of a benign tumor and then develop a malignant one (and vice versa.)

Information & Resources

Cancer Staging

What are Cancer Staging Tests and Why are They Important?

Owners are often curious as to what stage of cancer their pet has without understanding what the term ‘stage’ truly means.

Stage refers to where in the body we find evidence of cancer. In human medicine, the World Health Organization (WHO) establishes guidelines for cancer staging. We modify these guidelines for veterinary patients.

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Canine Soft Tissue Sarcoma

What is a Soft  Tissue Sarcoma?

Soft tissue sarcomas are tumors of connective tissues. Different soft tissue sarcomas are grouped together within this larger category because they have similar appearances on biopsy and similar clinical behavior in the patient. Subtypes include fibrosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, liposarcoma, myxosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma, among others.

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Canine Oral Melanoma

What is a Canine Oral Melanoma?

Melanoma is a common oral tumor in dogs. It is a tumor of melanocytes, which are pigment producing cells. Oral melanoma is more common in cocker spaniels, chow chows, Scottish terriers, poodles, golden retrievers and dachshunds. Any breed can be affected and tumors can be found anywhere in the mouth, including the lip, gums, tongue and hard palate.

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Canine and Feline Intestinal Tumors

Canine and Feline Intestinal Tumors?

Intestinal tumors are uncommon cancers in dogs and cats. Tumors develop in any portion of the digestive tract, from the duodenum to the colon. Tumors can be malignant or benign. Malignant tumors can spread to other sites of the body. The most common types of malignant tumors are adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, lymphoma, mast cell tumor (MCT), and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Benign tumors do not spread but can still be problematic depending on location. Common benign tumors include polyps and adenomas.

Appointment Policy and Resources

Oncology Group

Appointment Guidelines

The Medical Oncology service is a referral-only service. Your primary veterinarian can contact our service via telephone (919 513 6690) or email to initiate the referral process. You can also ask your veterinarian to provide you with a referral to our service at any point. If your pet was recently seen by our service, or you were directed to our service after seeing another specialty service at our hospital, you can call to directly set up your appointment.

  • Hours: Monday-Friday, 8AM-5PM
  • Drop-off hours: 7:30AM-8:30AM
  • Discharge hours: 4:30PM-6PM


What will happen during my appointment?

An initial consultation consists of a complete review of your pet’s medical history, including all previously performed labwork and imaging tests. You will meet your attending veterinarian, who will ask further questions about your pet’s history and clinical signs, perform a physical examination, and make recommendations for further diagnostic and treatment options. All of the resources of the Veterinary Hospital at North Carolina State University are available for use, if needed.

What will it cost?

The fee for the consultation with the oncology service is approximately $265.50. There are additional costs associated with emergencies. A typical visit including the clinical evaluation of extent of disease (which can include radiographs (x-rays), ultrasound, aspiration of lymph nodes) can range from $1000-$1500. If advanced imaging techniques are recommended (e.g. CT scan), costs will be higher. Treatment costs vary widely. We will provide owners with an estimate of prognosis and explain both curative-intent and palliative care options. Owners can expect a discussion of potential benefits and side effects as well as an estimate of costs for any therapies proposed.

There are research treatment protocols which can provide financial assistance to owners. A pet must be evaluated by the service before we can determine eligibility for one of the funded options.

  1. What caused my pet’s cancer? Cancer most often results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Evidence for a genetic cause of cancer in companion animals is supported by the many examples of breed predispositions to certain tumor types. The majority of genetic alterations that eventually lead to cancer occur because of spontaneous mutations. These mutations may occur as a result of chronic exposure to known cancer-causing substances. Nutrition, hormones, viruses, carcinogens, pesticides, UV light, and asbestos, are all factors that might increase the risk of cancer in pets.
  2. Will performing a biopsy cause the cancer to spread/become more aggressive? While tumor cells can disseminate into the bloodstream during surgery, the ability of these cells to implant within other tissues is extremely poor, and most circulating tumor cells are rapidly destroyed by the host’s immune system. Biopsies should be planned so they can be obtained from a region of the tumor that can be entirely removed with a more definitive surgical excision or be included in the radiation field, should that be recommended as treatment.
  3. Will my pet become sick from chemotherapyLess than 25% of all animals receiving chemotherapy will experience side effects from therapy. This generally entails mild and self-limiting gastrointestinal upset and/or lethargy that occur in the first few days following treatment. These signs can usually be controlled using over the counter or prescription medications. Less than 5% of patients have severe side effects that require medical attention. With appropriate management, the risk of these side effects causing the death of a patient is less than 1%. In general, the quality of life for patients receiving chemotherapy is excellent.  Studies show the majority owners are happy with their decision to pursue treatment for their pets and would elect to pursue treatment again after seeing how well their animals did during therapy.
  4. Will my pet lose his/her fur? Fur that is shaved may not regrow while on chemotherapy, and fur in the radiation treatment field may or may not grow back or may grow back white. Certain breeds, such as poodles and Old English sheepdogs, may lose the majority of their hair during chemotherapy. When fur is lost during chemotherapy, it will typically grow back when chemotherapy is finished. Cats and dogs will often lose their whiskers during chemotherapy.
  5. Can my pet be around family members or other animals while undergoing treatment? Pet’s receiving chemotherapy can interact with all family members.  Depending on the chemotherapy protocol the pet is receiving, there may be certain times after a treatment that your pet would be considered at a higher risk for infection, so specific precautions may be necessary for certain time periods following administration. When oral chemotherapy drugs are given at home, it is important that capsules or pills are kept out of the reach of children. If anyone on the household is pregnant, trying to become pregnant, nursing, or considered immunocompromised, they should not handle chemotherapy drugs. If chemotherapy is to be administered at home, chemotherapy approved gloves should be worn and the person handling the drugs should wash their hands afterwards. Chemotherapy pills should never be cut into pieces and capsules should not be opened.The metabolites of the chemotherapy drugs can be present in the urine and/or feces for a few days after treatment. Dogs should be walked away from public areas. Gloves should be worn when handling an animal’s feces, litter, vomit, etc. Hands should be washed thoroughly after handling and potentially contaminated fluids/waste. See Safe Handling of Chemotherapy for Pet Owners.
  6. How much will treatment cost? The cost of the initial consultation with the medical oncology service is $265.50. This includes a thorough review of your pet’s medical record, including all previous test results and your veterinarian’s notes, a comprehensive physical examination, and complete discussion of further recommendations, including treatment cost estimates. Treatment costs vary and your oncologist will work with you to create a customized plan for your pet. Your veterinarian will explain all available options and associated finances prior to initiating any plan.
  7. How long will my pet’s appointment last? You should prepare for a half to full day for your pet’s first appointment. Our service works in conjunction with other hospital services in a team approach to help your pet to ensure optimal care is delivered. This team approach takes time and we appreciate your patience.
  8. Do you offer clinical trials? Yes. Please go here for available clinical trials.