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Ronald Baynes, B.Sc. DVM, M.S., Ph.D

Professor of Pharmacology

Office: 919.513.6261

Dr. Baynes obtained his B.Sc. (Biology) from the University of the West Indies, veterinary degree from Tuskegee University, MS in pharmacology from the University of Georgia, and Ph.D. in pharmacology from North Carolina State University. He is currently a Professor of Pharmacology at NCSU College of Veterinary Medicine and prior to his current appointment, he was a Toxicologist at Syracuse Research Corporation in Atlanta, GA.
Dr. Baynes’ primary responsibilities at NCSU College of Veterinary Medicine for the last 21 years include teaching and research in two areas of quantitative pharmacology and toxicology. (1) Formulation and mixture effects on drug and chemical disposition of topical formulations leading to the development of Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models to inform risk assessment of skin exposures to chemical mixtures. (2) Contaminant and veterinary drug residue pharmacology and development of novel pharmacokinetics modeling approaches to inform risk management of veterinary drug residues via the national Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD) program.
Dr. Baynes’ research at NCSU has been supported by several NIH, USDA, US DOD, and industrial grants. He has generated more than 130 peer-reviewed publications and book chapters pertaining to his teaching, extension, and research activities. In addition to training of veterinary graduate students in his laboratory, he is actively involved in preparing undergraduate and DVM students for careers in veterinary research through several honors and summer programs.
American Chemical Society
Society of Toxicology
American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sigma Xi
DVM, Tuskegee University
PhD, Pharmacology, North Carolina State University
MS, Pharmacology, University of Georgia
BSc, Biology, University of the West Indies
Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Global Health, Pharmacology
Comparative Pharmacokinetics
This primarily involves drug/chemical Pharmacokinetics and Risk Management of residues following livestock exposure to veterinary drugs and/or chemical contaminants. Current research activities are focused on development of novel pharmacometric approaches (e.g., PBPK, PopPK) and model validation in appropriate veterinary species. Extension activities via the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD) are focused on providing expert consultation to U.S. veterinarians and livestock farmers about drug/chemical residues in livestock, development of algorithms for estimating safe withdrawal intervals following extralabel drug exposure and development of residue avoidance programs internationally (gFARAD). The laboratory has been active in analytical method development for drug and chemical residues in various tissue matrices using UPLC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS methods.

Dermal Absorption Assessment:
Current research activities are focused on assessing the dermal disposition of topical drug formulations and complex chemical mixtures (e.g., drugs, pesticides, cutting fluids, jet fuel additives). This research is providing some understanding of the physicochemical factors influencing dermal absorption of these formulation additives that cause occupational irritant dermatitis. Various live animal models (e. g. porcine model) and in vitro diffusion models (e.g., Franz Static Diffusion Cells, Bronaugh Flow-through Diffusion Cells) as well as in silico models (e.g., QSAR) have been utilized to better our understanding of physicochemical factors that influence drug and chemical diffusion across skin in human and various animal species.
  • (2018) Effect of three phytoceutical products on elimination of bacteria in experimentally-induced Streptococcus uberis clinical mastitis.Mullen, K. A. E., Lyman, R.L., Washburn, S.P., Baynes, RE., and Anderson, K.L. | J. Dairy Sci. (in press).
  • (2018) Genetic parameter estimates for metabolizing two common pharmaceuticals in swine.Howard, JT, Ashwell, MS., Baynes, RE, Brooks, JD., Yeatts, JL., Maltecca, C. | Front. Genet. (in press)
  • (2018) Impact of synthetic canine cerumen on the in vitro auricular skin penetration of florfenicol, terbinafine and betamethasone acetate in dogs.Ehling, S., Baynes, RE., Baumer, W. | Amer. J. Vet. Res. (in press).
  • (2017) Pharmacokinetic analysis of thymol, carvacrol and diallyl disulfide (garlic extract) after intramammary and topical applications in healthy organic dairy cattle.Mason, SE., Mullen, KE., Anderson, KL., Washburn, SP., Yeatts, JE., and Baynes, RE. | Food Addit. Contam. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2017.1285056.
  • (2017) Gene co-expression network analysis identifies porcine genes associated with variation in metabolizing fenbendazole and flunixin meglumine in the liver.Howard, JT, Ashwell, MS., Baynes, RE, Brooks, JD, Yeatts, JL, Maltecca, C. | Scientific Reports   May 2;7(1):1357. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-01526-5.
  • (2017) Potential of phytoceutical products to cause positive results on antibiotic residue detection tests.Mullen, KAE., Beasley, E., Washburn, SP., Baynes, RE., Rizzo, JQ., Anderson, KL. | Vet. Record. 2017;0:e000214. doi:10.1136/vetreco-2016-000214.
  • (2017) Evaluation of 1 2-aminoimidazole variant as adjuvant treatment for dermal bacterial infections.Draughn, GL., Allen, CL., Routh, PA., Stone, MR., Kirker, KR., Schuchman RM., Linder, KE., Baynes RE., Garth, J., Melander, CM., Pollard, A., and Cavanagh, J. | Drug Design Develop. Ther. 11:153-162.
  • (2017) Pharmacokinetics of 14C-Ortho-Phenylphenol Following Intravenous Administration in Pigs.*Nixon, E., Brooks, J., Routh, P., and Baynes, RE. | J. Appl. Toxicol. 37(4):508-512.
  • (2017) Pharmacokinetics and distribution in interstitial and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid of 2 danofloxacin in ruminant and preruminant calves.*Mzyk, DA., Baynes, R.E., Martinez, M., Smith, G.W. | J. Vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 40(2):179-191.
  • (2016) Development of HS-SPME-GC/MS/MS method for the quantification of thymol and carvacrol in bovine matrices and to determine residue depletion in milk and tissues.*Armorini, S., Yeatts, J., Mullen, K., Mason, S., Anderson, KL., Washburn, S., Baynes, RE. | J. Agric Food Chem. 64: 7856-7865.
  • (2016) Pharmacokinetics and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves.*Kissel, L.W., Brinson PD, Gehring R, Tell LA, Wetzlich SE, Baynes RE, Riviere JE, Smith GW. Am. | J. Vet. Res 77(6):634-640.
  • (2015) Tissue residues after label and extra-label administration of flunixin meglumine to saline or lipopolysaccharide-exposed dairy cows.Smith, D; Shelver, W.; Baynes, R, Tell, L; Gehring, R, Li, M, Dutko, T, Schroeder, JW; Herges, G, Riviere, J. | J. Agric Food Chem. 63(19): 4893-4901.
  • (2015) Differential gene expression across breed and sex in commercial pigs administered fenbendazole and flunixin meglumine.*Howard, J.T., O’Nan, A.T., Maltecca, C., Baynes, R.E., Ashwell, M.S. | PLoS ONE 10(9): e0137830. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0137830.
  • (2015) Tissue concentrations of sulfamethazine and tetracycline hydrochloride of swine (Sus scrofa domestica) as it relates to withdrawal methods for international export.Mason, S., Wu, H., Yeatts, J., and Baynes RE. | Reg. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 71(3): 590-596.
  • (2015) Skin absorption of six performance amines used in metalworking fluids.*Roux LN, Brooks JD, Yeatts JL, Baynes RE. | J Appl Toxicol. 35(5):520-528.
  • (2015). Pharmacokinetics of intramammary hetacillin in dairy cattle milked 3 times per day.*Lindquist, DA, Baynes RE, Smith GW. | J. Dairy. Sci. 98(3): 1856-1861.
  • (2015)  Comparison of flunixin pharmacokinetics and milk elimination in healthy cows and cows with mastitis.Kissell*, L., Leavens, T., Baynes, RE., Riviere, JE., Smith, G | J. Amer. Vet. Med Assoc. 246(1):118-125
FARAD is a university-based national program located at NC State University, University of Florida, Virginia Tech, Kansas State University, and University of California Davis.FARAD serves as the primary source for scientifically-based recommendations regarding safe withdrawal intervals of drugs and chemicals in food-producing animals. As such, FARAD is a key resource for protection of our nation's food supply, including meat, milk and eggs, against accidental contamination of animal-derived foods with violative residues of drugs, pesticides or other agents that could compromise food safety.

Through the assimilation of a comprehensive drug database and the use of state-of-the-art pharmacokinetic modeling, FARAD scientists determine appropriate withdrawal periods for a wide array of chemical entities and provide this information to veterinarians, extension specialists and livestock producers through a toll-free call center as well as a publicly-accessible web site (FARMWeb). In addition, FARAD provides rapid response assistance regarding extra-label use of drugs in animal agriculture, and during food contamination emergencies which might arise from accidental exposure to environmental toxins, particularly pesticides, or intentional efforts to contaminate the food supply. Finally, FARAD provides assistance in trade matters related to foreign drug approvals and trains future veterinarians in the principles of residue avoidance.

Faculty and Collaborators:
Ronald Baynes, PD, Professor of Pharmacology
Geof Smith; Co-PI, Professor of Ruminant Medicine
Derek Foster: Co-PI, Associate Professor of Ruminant Medicine
Kristen Messenger: Co-PI, Assistant Professor of Pharmacology
Rob DeWoskin, Adjunct Professor, and Science Adviser
Jim Riviere, Professor Emeritus, Science Adviser
Jason Chiiterden; Science Adviser
Danielle Mzyk, Food Animal Veterinarian and Science Adviser

Ph.D Graduate Students:
Emma Nixon, B.Sc.
Jennifer Halleran, DVM, MS, DACVIM