NC State DVM Students treating lizard

DVM Professional Program

Ranked as one of the top veterinary educational programs in North America, the CVM is the one of the few to offer an onsite teaching animal unit that operates as a working farm.

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Curriculum

The academic professional program calls for two phases of education. A preclinical three-year phase is followed by a clinical phase in the fourth year of training. The first through the third year of the professional pro-gram are concerned with a gradual progression from a basic science presentation to a more clinical application of veterinary science. Two summer vacation periods are allowed in the first three years of the professional program.

In the first year, a DVM student will be able to describe the evolution, development, function and identification of normal microscopic and gross anatomy, explain the physiological and biochemical basis for common tests used in the diagnostic process, and learn how to effectively communicate in small groups in a professional veterinary context.

Below is an example of the veterinary courses in the first year of our program.

Fall Semester Courses

VMC 910 – Careers in Veterinary Medicine – Specialists and invited speakers from multiple areas of veterinary medicine will present information about career opportunities.

1 semester hour

VMB 911 – Veterinary Anatomy I – Gross anatomy of the dog and cat. Neuroanatomy of the dog and cat. Dissection of embalmed (dog/cat), study of prosections, slides, models, radiographs, and correlations with living animals.

5 semester hours

VMB 912 – Introduction to Clinical Problem Solving in Veterinary Practice – A combination of lectures and in-class activities will be used to explore the clinical reasoning process and steps used in “working up” a veterinary clinical case. Specific topics include: patient signalment, chief complaint, history, physical exam, problem list, differential diagnoses. Also covered: introductory clinical skills, medical records (SOAP).

2 semester hours

VMB 913 – Veterinary Physiology I – A course in comparative physiology with special attention to domestic mammalian and avian species. Emphasis is placed on cellular and metabolic physiology and the physiology of the nervous, endocrine, and reproductive systems.

4 semester hours

VMB 914 – Histology and Cytology – This course focuses on the study of cells, basic tissues, and selected organs of domestic animals. The primary emphasis is on the molecular and structural basis for cell function, tissue organization, and organ systems.

2 semester hours

VMC 914 – Group Communication in Veterinary Medicine – This course explores how to effectively communicate in small groups in a professional veterinary context. Students will develop verbal and nonverbal communication skills, an understanding of task/process balance, meeting management and facilitation techniques, and communication styles and strategies for dealing with challenging group situations and conflict management. Examples and cases from veterinary medicine will guide application of group communication in context.

1 semester hour

VMP 910 – Infection and Immunity 1 – This course is intended to familiarize the student with the pathogenic bacteria and fungi of veterinary importance. The student will learn the properties and cultivation of these microorganisms and receive a general introduction to the diseases they can cause. Primary emphasis will be placed on how the biology of the pathogen influences disease pathogenesis, and microbiological identification of infectious agents. The laboratory exercises will complement the lectures and focus on standard procedures for microbial cultivation and identification.

3 semester hours

VMP 916 – Health Maintenance and Animal Production I – This course is part I of a series with VMP 936 and 956 designed to introduce students to procedures for health maintenance and care of horses and food-producing animals. Students learn how to prevent diseases and promote animal health in laboratories.

1 semester hour

Spring Semester Courses

VMB 921 – Comparative and Developmental Anatomy – Gross anatomy of domestic ungulates (horse, ox, sheep, goat, pig). Involves dissection of embalmed specimens and study of prosections, models, radiographs, and live-animal palpation.

4 semester hours

VMB 923 – Veterinary Physiology II – A continuation course in comparative physiology with special attention to domestic and avian species. Emphasis is placed upon water and electrolyte metabolism and the physiology of gastrointestinal, endocrine, and nervous systems.

4 semester hours

VMC 927 – Introduction to Companion Animal Behavior – This course explores the behavior of companion animals from a veterinary perspective. An emphasis is placed on behavior as an indicator of welfare and health, humane handling of animals, prevention of behavior problems, and treatment of common behavior problems. In addition, the nature of human-animal bond and ethical issues relating to human-animal interactions will be discussed. Students will learn how to diagnose and treat common behavior problems on the basis of video-rich case presentations, lecturre material, and class discussion. This course is restricted to students enrolled in the DVM Curriculum.

2 semester hours

VMP 916 – Health Maintenance and Animal Production I – This course is part I of a series with VMP 936 and 956 designed to introduce students to procedures for health maintenance and care of horses and food-producing animals. Students learn how to prevent diseases and promote animal health in laboratories.

1 semester hours

VMP 920 – Infection and Immunity 2 – This course is intended to continue the topics introduced in Infection and Immunity 1. Specific bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens will be covered including pathogenesis and strategies used to control infection and/or development of disease. The course will also cover more advanced topics in Immunology including the types of hypersensitivities, autoimmunity, immunity in the newborn and fetus, immune deficiencies and vaccination.

4 semester hours

VMP 921 – Cases in Infectious Diseases and Immunity 1 – This course is intended to challenge first-year veterinary students to reach a diagnosis laboratory procedures. The second portion of the course requires the students to develop a list of differential causes to assigned clinical cases, choose a presumptive diagnosis based on available data and ordering of diagnostic tests to confirm the presumptive diagnosis. The individual cases are discussed in a small group format with a faculty facilitator.

2 semester hours

VMP 922 – Small Group Problem Solving in Veterinary Medicine – Students will work in small groups with a faculty facilitator to examine case scenarios, and apply the problem-solving process discussed in VMB 912 to a variety of clinical and research problems. This course will provide a venue for integration of content presented in other courses, as well as application of small-group communication skills.

1 semester hour

VMC 937 – Introduction to Physical Examination Skills – Small Animal – Introduction to physical examination, laboratory sample collection, and medication administration skills in dogs and cats. Students will also be taught how to understand and use the problem oriented approach for patient management. Students must be enrolled in the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine program.

1 semester hour

Below is an example of the veterinary courses in the second year of our program.

Fall Semester Courses

VMB 930 – Anesthesiology – Anesthetic principles, agents, and techniques of mammalian, avian, and rodent species.

2 @semester hours

VMB 931 – Veterinary Ethics & Welfare – This course will explore the major ethical issues confronting the practices of veterinary medicine, biomedical science, and animal welfare. Students will become familiar with legal and institutional positions, consider and debate opposing arguments on the various topics, and examine relevant case studies. Provides the basic leadership and operational training necessary to become a Credentialed responder for the State of North Carolina.

2 semester hours

VMB 932 – Veterinary Medical Decision Making – A combination of lectures and Moodle activities will be used to explore the medical decision-making process in veterinary medicine and error prevention strategies. Main course themes are errors in: knowledge acquisition, data gathering, data processing and metacognition. Discussion of generation, refinement and testing of diagnostic hypotheses.

1 semester hour

VMB 933 – Introductory Pharmacology – The action of drugs in animals and man including basic principles of drug disposition and pharmacokinetics is discussed. Modification of physiological processes by drugs influencing coordination by the nervous, endocrine, and circulatory systems are described.

3 semester hours

VMB 936 – Introduction to Radiology – This course describes and explains the principles of physics of diagnostic radiology and ultrasound, and the basics of image interpretation. Principles of thoracic radiography and radiographic anatomy will be covered. Radiographic interpretation of the cardiovascular system, lungs and airways and pleural space are discussed and related to physiology of the different organ systems. Principles of abdominal radiography and radiographic anatomy will be covered as well and the concepts of peritoneal detail, abdominal mass effect and intestinal ileus will be introduced.

1 semester hour

VMC 932 – Principles of Surgery and Introduction to Small Animal Surgical Diseases – Principles of the science, art and craft of surgery are presented as a foundation for applied clinical applications. Asepsis, instrumentation suture technique, and wound healing are emphasized.

3 semester hours

VMP 930 –Infection and Immunity 3 – This course is designed to serve as a continuation of Infection & Immunity 1 & 2 (first-year curriculum) for the second-year veterinary student. This course is designed to reinforce principles of infectious disease and immunity introduced in the first year of the DVM curriculum and expand upon specific groups of parasites. This course will cover the diagnosis, treatment and control of major endo and ecto parasites of domesticated animals.

3 semester hours

VMP 931 – Veterinary Pathology I – Introduction to the basic pathologic changes which occur in animal tissues. Developmental processes and resulting morphology observed at gross, cellular, and subcellular level emphasized.

3 semester hours

VMP 934 – Problem Solving Cases Infectious Disease & Immunity 2 – This course is intended to challenge first-year veterinary students to reach a diagnosis of realistic cases involving either infectious diseases or immune pathology. The first part of the course is an introduction to diagnostic laboratory procedures. The second portion of the course requires the students to develop a list of differential causes to assigned clinical cases, choose a presumptive diagnosis based on available data and ordering of diagnostic tests to confirm the presumptive diagnosis. The individual cases are discussed in a small group format with a faculty facilitator.

2 semester hours

VMP 936 – Health Maintenance and Animal Production II – This course is part II of a series with VMP 916 and 956 designed to introduce students to procedures for health maintenance and care of horses and food-producing animals. Students learn how to care for animals, prevent diseases, and milk cows in laboratories.

1 semester hour

Spring Semester Courses

VMB 943 – Pharmacology and Veterinary Therapeutics – A course in clinical pharmacology with emphasis on the pharmacology of antimicrobial drugs, systematic pharmacology, pharmacology applied to special species, prescription writing, and benefit-risk assessment.

3 semester hours

VMB 944 – Veterinary Toxicology and Poisonous Plants – Toxicological basis and pathological features of diseases of animals and birds caused by common toxic chemicals and plants with emphasis on clinical manifestations, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

2 semester hours

VMC 942 – Principles of Medicine – This cross-species course provides an introduction to the principles of disease and injury state common to all species. Content in this course is intended to prepare the students for third year DVM medicine and surgery courses.

2 semester hours

VMC 943 – Laboratory Animal and Zoological Species Health and Disease I – Principles of applied biology, management, physical examination, and medical techniques, health problems and medical treatment of laboratory and companion fishes, amphibians, and reptiles will be presented. Laboratory sessions will include handling of live animals, examination of necropsy specimens, and case discussions.

1 semester hour

VMC 944 – Introduction to Clinical and Professional Communication – The ability to communicate with clients is important to successful veterinary practice. The focus of this course is to explore how to effectively communicate with clients in a clinical context. Students will develop verbal and nonverbal communication skills, an understanding of relationship-centered care, management of client interactions, getting informed consent, and communicating complex information. Examples and cases from veterinary medicine will guide application of clinical communication in context.

1 semester hour

VMP 936 – Health Maintenance and Animal Production II – This course is part II of a series with VMP 916 and 956 designed to introduce students to procedures for health maintenance and care of horses and food-producing animals. Students learn how to care for animals, prevent diseases, and milk cows in laboratories.

1 semester hour

VMP 941 – Veterinary Pathology II – A study of specific responses of organ systems to pathogenic influences in animals with emphasis on the effects on the body as a whole.

4 semester hours

VMP 942 – Veterinary Clinical Pathology – Introduction to the mechanisms which produce abnormal physiologic parameters within the animal during illness, with emphasis on the techniques for determining those abnormalities in the living animal.

3 semester hours

VMP 945 – Epidemiology & Public Health – The focus of this course is to construct a foundation for clinical medicine by acquiring a holistic view of disease, exploring optimal preventive medicine strategies while developing a critical thinking skills and quantitative reasoning techniques. The teaching/learning format of the course will include lecture, in-class exercises, discussions and case studies. 3 semester hours.

3 semester hours

Below is an example of the veterinary courses in the third year of our program.

Fall Semester Courses

VMB 952 – Specialized Problem Solving in Veterinary Medicine – Specialized Problem-Solving is the fourth in a series of courses focusing on Clinical Reasoning and Problem Solving. In this class, you will build upon the skills developed in earlier courses, and work to diagnose, treat and trouble-shoot more complex cases. These cases may have external constraints that will limit your ability to order diagnostic tests, and/or may require identification and correction of medical errors. You will work in unsupervised teams, and then present the results of your decision-making processes to a facilitator for discussion, review and critique.

1 semester hour

VMC 951 – Companion Animal Medicine and Surgery – This course is an overview of medical and surgical management of selected metabolic, neoplastic, nutritional, immune-mediated, developmental, and degenerative diseases of companion animals.

4 semester hours

VMC 952 – Equine Medicine & Surgery – Medical conditions in large domesticated animals are presented in this course. Discussions involve the agents causing diseases and the therapeutic methods used to correct.

3 semester hours

VMC 953 – Laboratory Animal and Zoological Species Health and Disease II – Principles of applied biology, management, physical examination and medical techniques, health problems and medical treatment of laboratory animals,small companion mammals and zoological species will be presented. Laboratory sessions may include handling of live animals, examination of necropsy specimens, and case discussions. Laboratory Animal and Zoological Species Health and Disease II will focus on avian and mammalian species.

Students must be enrolled in the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine program. 3 semester hours

VMC 956 – Advanced Clinical and Professional Communication – The ability to communicate with clients is important to successful veterinary practice. This course explores how to effectively communicate with clients in a clinical context during problem appointments. Students will develop verbal and nonverbal communication skills and an understanding of how to manage difficult client interactions including 1) communicating about money, 2) communicating during adverse events, and 3) communicating during euthanasia. Examples and cases from veterinary medicine and simulated client interactions will guide application of clinical communication in context.

1 semester hour

VMC 957 – Introduction to Clinical Practice – The problem-oriented approach to diagnosis is introduced through exposure to clinical case studies, supervised visits with local veterinary practitioner, and participation in the medicine and surgery services in The Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Familiarity is gained with admission procedures, medical records, patient management, and clinical rounds.

1 semester hour

VMC 933 – Theriogenology – The physiology, endocrinology, and pathology of the reproductive system are presented. Emphasis includes genital anatomy and function, endocrine interrelationships, and methods for examination of mammary gland and reproductive tract function, including diagnosis and treatment of clinical disorders.

3 semester hour

VMP 956 – Health Maintenance and Animal Production III – This course is part III of a series designed to instruct students in procedures for maintaining the health and well-being of horses and food-producing animals. Students learn how to prevent diseases and promote animal production, including production of safe meat and milk.

1 semester hour

Spring Semester Courses

VMB 960 – Veterinary Radiology and Radiobiology – Fundamentals of radiographic diagnosis. The VMB 960 course is focused on the diagnostic imaging appearance of small and large animal thoracic, abdominal, musculoskeletal and neurologic disease. The main imaging modality that will be covered is diagnostic radiology and some diagnostic ultrasound but Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) will be introduced as well. The principles of image interpretation will be revisited and the imaging appearance of important and common diseases will be presented and discussed. Case examples will be shown and students may be asked to provide case interpretation in class.

2 semester hours

VMB 961 – Success in Clinics – This course provides an opportunity for students to integrate and synthesize professional skills in preparation for clinical rotations. Students will apply their knowledge of clinical communication, teamwork, clinical reasoning, ethics, and business management as they work through a series of group activities. The didactic portion of the course will focus on the professional roles and responsibilities of practicing veterinarians, and include information on inter-professional collaboration, communicating with the public and professional identity and management.

2 semester hours

VMB 965 – Veterinary Nutritional Health – The role of nutrition in veterinary medicine. Development, diagnosis and prevention of nutritional problems in a variety of species will be discussed, frequently employing a comparative approach.

2 semester hours

VMC 961 – Companion Animal Medicine and Surgery II – This course is an overview of medical and surgical management of selected metabolic, neoplastic, nutritional, immune-mediated, developmental, and degenerative diseases of companion animals.

3 semester hours

VMC 965 – Advanced Principles of Surgery – This laboratory includes induction and maintenance of anesthesia in representative companion animal, food animal, and equine species; the practice of surgery on anesthetized animals and cadaver specimens; and experience with diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Students examine, assess, and provide preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative management of their patients.

1 semester hour

VMP 962 – Food Animal Medicine & Surgery – The principles of medical and surgical disorders of ruminants are presented. This includes the cause of the disorders and the diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic measures necessary to correct, reduce or prevent these problems.

2 semester hours

VMP 964 – Swine and Poultry Medicine – Lecture series supplemented with projected illustration on the most economically important diseases of poultry and swine. Emphasis is placed on definition of diseases, etiology, characteristics of the disease, and diagnosis. The economics related to occurrence, prevention, treatment, and control are presented. 3 semester hours.

2 semester hours

Fourth-year students must complete required and elective rotations that vary depending on the students’ selected focus area. Students must complete 43 credits in the senior year: 40 credits of clinical rotations and three credits in Clinical Conference. The clinic year consists of 24 blocks, two-to-three weeks in length, with up to four vacation blocks and three extramural experiences (Clinician Scientist, Epidemiology, & Food Animal Focus Areas have different extramural requirements). A total of 168 credit hours are required for graduation. Clinical Conference presentations are required of each senior.

The clinic scheduling process begins in fall of third year with information sessions with senior clinicians and/or clinical coordinators, Academic Affairs, and Students Services.

Below is an example of the veterinary courses in the final year of our DVM program.

Clinical Courses

VMC 996 – Advanced Avian Clinical Medicine – Students will work with teaching birds to develop skills in avian handling, diagnostic sample collection, anesthesia and radiology. Cadavers will be used to teach orthopedic and soft tissue surgical procedures. Students and faculty will spend approximately 5 days in the field working with psittacine birds, waterfowl, and raptors at Sylvan Heights Waterfowl Park in Scotland Neck, NC, and at the Carolina Raptor Center in Charlotte, NC. Prerequisite: VMC 988-Exotic Animal Medicine.

Prerequisite: VMC 988-Exotic Animal Medicine

VMC 959 – Advanced Primate Medicine – This rotation is designed to provide senior veterinary students with clinical experience in nonhuman primate medicine. Student will gain practical experience in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease in captive research primates maintained in research facilities. Students participate in formal rounds, autodidactic exercises, and case management at the Primate Center at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, NC. Housing is the student’s responsibility – see Student Services for contact info.

Prerequisite: VMC 991 Primate Selective. Must be Zoo Med Focus Area or have instructor’s approval.

VMC 958 – Advanced Prosimian Medicine – This rotation is designed to provide senior veterinary students with clinical experience in prosimian medicine. Students will gain practical experience in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease in captive prosimians maintained in research facilities. Students participate in formal rounds, autodidactic exercises, and case management at the Duke Lemur Center.

Prerequisite: VMC 991 Primate Selective. Must be Zoo Med Focus Area or have instructor’s approval.

VMP 975 – Advanced Topics in Veterinary Anatomic Pathology – This is a senior veterinary clinical rotation that provides students with additional focused experience in veterinary anatomic pathology. Students have the option of rotating through necropsy service and surgical biopsy service for two weeks to gain additional experience in pathology similar to VMP 977. Students have the option of designing a specialized pathology experience with the guidance of an approved pathology faculty member.

Must have instructor’s approval.

VMB 977 – Anesthesia This is a core course and required for all seniors. Students engage in the daily clinical service responsibilities of the CVM-VTH Anesthesia Section in the role of anesthetists assigned to the care of client-owned animals. The objective of this clinical course is to enable each student to achieve their maximum potential as neophyte anesthetists having limited experience. Student activities are supervised and conducted by CVM faculty anesthesiologists and VTH staff anesthesia technicians. Supporting activities related to delivering clinical service include attending clinical rounds and case discussions, as well as oral presentation of a critical review of a recently published research paper relevant to anesthesia and its supporting basic sciences.

Required for all seniors.

 

VMC 998 – Basic Wildlife Rehabilitation Medicine, & VMC 999 – Advanced Wildlife Rehabilitation Medicine –Wildlife rehabilitation medicine, the delivery of health care and management to free-ranging native wildlife with the goal of re-release, is an important component of clinical veterinary medicine. Students will apply practical medical and surgical techniques and methods for diagnosing disease, delivering health care, and implementing appropriate triage for injured and ill North Carolina native wildlife.

Must have approval of course coordinator. Prerequisite: Zool Med Focus Area; OR Prerequisite: VMC 964 and Instructor Approval.

VMC 972 – Cardiology – This course will provide training in obtaining a thorough history and performing a complete examination, with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Students will gain experience in identifying, defining, and prioritizing health problems. They will learn to develop and initiate rational diagnostic and therapeutic plans, communicating these plans and results to the client. Students will also perform various diagnostic procedures (e.g., blood pressure measurement, ECG, thoracic radiographs, transtracheal aspiration , etc.). Students will learn to interpret results of diagnostic tests and determine their importance to the patient and client; they will also communicate with clinicians, clients, veterinary technicians and staff, fellow students, and referring veterinarians in appropriate and effective manner. In addition, this course will provide the opportunity to learn the presenting signs, historical findings, breed predilections, methods of diagnosis, and medical and surgical interventions for the most commonly seen cardio respiratory conditions.

VMB 978 – Clinical Behavior and Nutrition – This clinical rotation will provide interested students with the opportunity to gain experience in both behavior and nutrition. During the week spent at the Behavior Medicine Service, students will participate in the diagnosis and treatment of behavior problems in companion animals. During the week spent at the Nutrition Service, students will develop and initiate nutrition support plans for hospitalized and healthy companion animals. Relevant nutrition support skills will be practiced.

VMC 995 – Clinical Conference – Each senior student is required to do a 25-minute presentation during their senior year. The presentation may involve a case report, series of cases, or epidemiological study. Retrospective study of a disease or syndrome, including data drawn from other institutions or published findings, may be used, as well as topics of general interest to veterinary medicine of an innovative nature. Will be registered for in the summer, fall, and spring.

VMP 978 – Clinical Pathology, Laboratory Medicine and Nutrition – This is a core course and required for all seniors. This course provides veterinary students with a practical case-based approach to learning all majors aspects of veterinary clinical pathology, laboratory medicine (parasitology, immunology, virology, bacteriology) and nutrition in a clinical setting. It is restricted to students enrolled in the fourth year of the DVM curriculum.

VMB 962 – Clinician Scientist Research Experience – This research rotation is designed to continue the research training and experience that Clinician Scientist Focus Area students have gained during their summer research experience and any other additional research they have done during the first three years of their DVM curricular experience. Since the students taking this rotation will be doing independent research, albeit under the direction of a faculty principal investigator, the particulars of the course syllabus will vary for each student. However, the students will all be expected to perform independent, guided research projects, which involve some type of wet lab experience or statistics/bioinformatics approaches. The students will also be intimately involved in the design, execution and interpretation of laboratory experiments, and/or in the design and implementation of any retrospective clinical studies.

VMC 983 – Dermatology – Dermatological disease will represent a significant proportion of your case load, particularly in companion animal practice. Most of the patients that you will see have chronic relapsing disease that can be frustrating and often costly for the owner. Therefore, whilst an accurate diagnosis represents the first step in dealing with a case, the challenge in this field of medicine is to successfully manage cases in the long term. This requires good and open communication with the client as well as regular patient evaluation. Most of the diagnostic techniques employed in dermatology are very simple and do not require expensive equipment or excessive amounts of time. The key to successful dermatological practice is to use these tools appropriately to recognize conditions such as parasitic infestations and bacterial or yeast infections, for which there is a specific course of treatment. It specializes in the diagnosis and management of chronic ear disease and immunological dermatoses such as autoimmune skin diseases, food reactions, and atopic dermatitis. The good practitioner, however, recognizes that cutaneous manifestations may be a reflection of internal disease, and a thorough systemic evaluation is also required. When studying the skin there is one big advantage: it is on the outside.

VMP 979 – Epidemiology – The main goal is to provide senior veterinary students with the opportunity for pursuing a focused research topic in the area of veterinary epidemiology and population medicine under the direction of consenting faculty. The exact direction and scope of the topic is agreed upon between the instructor, the student, and the course coordinator. This course is offered only by the permission of the participating instructor(s) and the course coordinator. The instructor and the student will work out the type of project, what exact objectives are to be met, and how the success of obtaining those objectives will be evaluated. The objectives and methods of evaluation of performance will be negotiated between the veterinary student and the instructor and put into writing in the form of a Plan of Action PRIOR to course permission being granted by the course coordinator. No one textbook is required for this course.

VMC 966 – Equine Emergency & Critical Care – This course is an elective rotation for 4th year veterinary students only. The elective is designed as an intensive learning experience and skill development in the assessment and management of equine emergency patients. Students will participate in daily topic rounds discussions about critical care topics. Students will participate in the evaluation and monitoring of in-house critical care patients as well as in the admittance of new emergencies. Students will participate in the medical and surgical management of these patients.

VMC 978 – Equine Lameness and Imaging – Development and use of problem-solving skills in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of lameness and related topics, e.g., farriery, orthopedic surgery, diagnostic imaging, race training, etc., in the performance horse. Overnight/weekend field trips may be included in course requiring fees other than, or in addition to, laboratory and computer course fees. Prerequisite: Equine Focus Area; All others by Instructor Approval

VMC 979 – Equine Medicine – Students are responsible for all aspects of patient care and are expected to be dedicated to their patients. Frequent and careful observation of the patients, attention to detail, diligent record keeping, accuracy in formulating and carrying out a treatment plan, and use of common sense are expected. The earlier you note potential problems, the earlier and easier they can be resolved.

VMC 968 – Equine Orthopedic Surgery & Lameness– Application of problem solving skills and the art, science, and practice of equine orthopedic surgery and lameness in the veterinary teaching hospital setting.

VMC 949 – Equine Primary Care – This 4-week course will provide students with an initial one-week of intensive clinical experience in equine primary care and three weeks with an NCSU CVM-approved equine primary care practice. Students will be seeing a variety of primary care cases from CVM staff- and faculty-owned horses, state-owned horses, and horses from non-profit organizations during the first week at Southern Pines, including vaccinations, dentistry, lameness, imaging, nastrogastric intubation, and field surgery. This course is not an externship, and students will have outcome assessments from the instructor as well as the veterinarian at the equine primary care practice. Students will be expected to examine cases, discuss differentials, provide a treatment plan, perform treatments, and provide client communication. Instructor Permission Required.

VMC 993 – Equine Special Topics – The course is designed to give additional experience in equine-oriented clinical services at NCSU. Students will not be able to participate in this block off campus, unless working directly with a NCSU faculty member. A faculty mentor must be identified within one month of signing up for this course and a written proposal of activities planned submitted to Dr. Sam Jones. Prerequisites: Any 2 of the following courses: Preventative Health Care, Equine Medicine, Equine Surgery, or Equine Theriogenology. Instructor Permission Required

VMC 975 – Equine Surgery – Application of problem solving skills and the art, science, and practice of equine surgery, including lameness, in the veterinary hospital setting. 1. Conduct a comprehensive physical examination of the horse, including examinations for lameness. 2. Formulate plans for the use of ancillary diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of the common surgical diseases of the horse. 3. Select routine preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative treatment procedures for horses with surgical diseases. 4. Perform routine radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations of the forelimbs and hind limbs for diagnosis of lameness in the horse. 5. Develop client communication skills needed for the practice of equine surgery.

VMC 988 – Exotic Animal Medicine– This senior year two-week clinical course (half CVM-based, half private practice) provides practical experience in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease in privately owned fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, rodents, lagomorphs, and other small mammals. This rotation is designed to combine clinical training in avian and herptile medicine at the CVM with clinically based special species medicine and surgery in private practice. Students will normally spend the first week at the CVM (3 days avian; 2 days herptile). During the second week students will split and visit different practices in the Triangle area. Case responsibility will be assigned to individual students by the course instructor(s) as appropriate in the practice setting. In some cases students will also be seeing pet domestic mammals, depending on the clinic and case load for the particular day. Irregular and/or long hours are not expected but may be required in unforeseen circumstances. Weekend duties are not routinely required.

VMC 946 – Extramural Experiences – Business Management – This course is designed to offer students additional business experience in the veterinary industry.  Through partnership with external organizations, students will gain business experience and explore topics such as emerging business, legal, and ethical issues, practice management,  human resource management, employment contracts and negotiations, buy and selling veterinary practices, and practice financing. This opportunity will consist of an evolving list of external partners and could include organizations offering practice management consulting, human resource consulting, business consulting, insurance and financing.

VMC 955 – Extramural Experiences in Laboratory Animal Medicine – DVM students will have the opportunity to undertake a two-week rotation in an approved laboratory animal (LA) facility under the supervision of a laboratory animal veterinarian. This opportunity will meet the need to increase “hands-on” experience as part of focus area requirements or recommendations. At a laboratory animal facility, the rotation will most likely consist of the opportunity to “shadow” LA veterinarians in medical rounds and the provision of clinical services.

VMP 994 – Extramural Experiences in Pathology – This is a two-week externship experience in pathology. The student will arrange an extramural experience in an academic, diagnostic, government, industrial, or zoological/wildlife laboratory setting under the supervision of a board certified veterinary anatomical or clinical pathologist.

VMC 994 – Extramural Experiences in Small Animal – This is a recommended rotation designed to expand opportunities for senior veterinary students interested in small animal private practice. During the experience, the student is expected to: a) enhance and learn clinical and technical skills; b) develop effective client communication skills and time management; and c) observe elements of small business management, including personnel involved and professional financial interactions with private clients. Students will work at a private or corporate veterinary practice under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian engaged in small animal practice. Travel and lodging expenses are variable depending on the site of the experience. Participation is contingent on approval by the student’s advisor and the course coordinator. Students are responsible for arranging their extramural experiences and accommodations.

VMC 963 – Extramural Experiences in Zoological Medicine – This elective senior year rotation allows students to obtain clinical, laboratory, field, and research experiences in zoological medicine that augment the basic rotations in the zoological medicine focus area. Students can customize their training through participation in a variety of opportunities including epidemiology projects, other basic or clinical research projects, and externships involving captive and free-ranging wildlife & zoo species.

VMP 971 – Food Animal Diagnostics for Disease Diagnosis, Control, and Population Surveillance – This course is not a general educational requirement. Priority is given to students in Food Animal Focus Area. Students in Mixed Animal Focus Area or special case Epidemiology Focus Area students can enroll (if space remains) with the approval of the Course Coordinator if they meet the criteria stated in the course Prerequisites, which are successful completion of Veterinary Program to date, students signed up in Food Animal Focus Area or Mixed Focus Area, or special-case students approved by Course Coordinator and who have demonstrated commitment to, knowledge of, and ability to work within an area of food animal veterinary medicine by some or all of the following: prior undergraduate coursework, summer work experiences, and/or consistent enrollment and good performance in food animal selectives.

VMP 976 – Food Animal Pharmacology – This course will outline the basic principles of pharmacology and therapy of the major diseases of ruminants, swine and poultry. Students will be expected to develop a thorough understanding of how properly to use drugs in food animal species and should be able to develop a treatment program for most major livestock diseases. The course will be restricted to students in the Food Animal & Mixed Animal focus areas.

VMP 974 – Food Supply Veterinary Medicine – This course provides exposure to the clinical principles of food supply veterinary medicine. It is primarily intended for individuals who are not in the Food Animal Focus Area. Ruminant, swine and poultry faculty provide an overview of the animal industries and production practices, as well as exposure to basic veterinary knowledge and clinical skills. Prerequisites this course is intended for Offshore Students and is only available to NC State’s CVM students with consent of instructor.

VMC 939 – General Limited Small Animal Practice – Will expose clinical year veterinary students to a general small animal veterinary practice. There will be several areas of focus: learning clinical skills relevant to a general veterinary practitioner; developing strong problem solving abilities; developing the strong communication skills necessary to interact effectively with clients, colleagues and staff, incorporating; and conducting behavior evaluations of pets during wellness examinations. Enrollment in this course is limited to students in the DVM professional program.

VMC 981 – Laboratory Animal Medicine – The block will provide practical experience in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases of laboratory animals. It will include special study of diseases of laboratory animals and the management of laboratory animal facilities. Opportunity to perform surgical procedures on common laboratory animals will be provided in a series of surgical labs. There will be field trips to other laboratory animal resource facilities within the Research Triangle Park and surrounding areas. The student will present a seminar on a selected topic for critical appraisal by students and faculty.

VMC 974 Equine Dentistry and Podiatry – This course will provide practical instruction in commonly used skills and techniques necessary for equine dentistry and equine podiatry. It is an intensive, team taught series of didactic lectures, individual laboratories, and clinical case experiences with practitioners that provide students with a high level of experience in equine dentistry and equine podiatry. This course is designed for students in the fourth year of the DVM curriculum, with good horse handling skills and a desire to practice equine veterinary medicine upon graduation. This course is strongly recommended for students with an equinefocus or mixed animal focus with an equine concentration. Students must have basic equine handling experience and/or have taken the Equine Behavior Selective.

VMC 986 – Medicine – Advanced Small Animal– This course provides a higher level of experience for the diagnosis and management of companion animals with complex medical problems. Students may choose to concentrate on particular aspects of internal medicine. Students are not required to participate in emergency/intensive care unit duty. Prerequisite: VMC 971 Companion Animal Medicine or VMC 954 Companion Animal Medicine for Food Animal/Equine Students.

VMC 971 – Medicine – Small Animal Internal– 1. Obtaining a thorough history and performing a complete physical examination. 2. Identifying, defining, and prioritizing problems. 3. Developing and initiating rational diagnostic and therapeutic plans. 4. Performing certain diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. 5. Interpreting results of diagnostic tests, and determining their importance to the patient. 6. Verbal and written communication with clinicians, clients, veterinary techniques, fellow student veterinarians, and referring veterinarians. 7. Determining the point at which it is time to refer a case to a colleague for “another look”, or to a referral center for specialized diagnostic testing or treatment. 8. Understanding how cases management in private practice compares with referral practice. 9. Approaching issues regarding euthanasia; your decision-making, assisting the owner. This course is a two-block rotation and only begins on odd blocks.

VMC 954 – Medicine -Small Animal for Food Animal Students – Small animal medicine clinical rotation emphasizing the disciplined detection, prioritizing and planning for therapy of medical diseases in small companion animals. Development of medical judgment and the use of the problem oriented medical record is stressed. This course is intended for DVM students in the food animal focus area.

VMC 984 – Neurology – This service provides diagnosis and management of nervous system disorders in animals, including nuclear imaging, myelography, CT scans, electromyography, neurosurgery, and postoperative patient rehabilitation including hydrotherapy and treadmill training. Attendance is required at weekly clinical rounds, general medicine rounds, and the patient rounds and mini-seminars conducted within the service. Irregular and/or long hours may be required.

VMC 980 – Oncology – This is an elective rotation during the 4th year of CVM professional studies providing experience in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in animals. Emphasis is on development of comprehensive cancer management strategies including ethical considerations, diagnostic techniques, treatment options, and client communication skills. Students will be assigned cases being seen by the oncology service as inpatients, outpatients, and new referral appointments.

VMC 982 – Ophthalmology – The ophthalmology course will acquaint the student with examinations, diagnostics and therapeutic practices, and principles of clinical veterinary medicine. There will be direct supervision by faculty and house officers. Attendance is required at weekly clinical rounds, general medicine rounds, and the patient rounds and mini-seminars conducted within the service. Irregular and/or long hours may be required. Students will be expected to be neatly dressed, well groomed, and conduct themselves in a professional manner at all times.

VMP 982 – Poultry Health Management I – This is a clinical rotation elective for 4th year veterinary students with an interest in poultry health management or food animal production. This course is offered 4 times each year. Diseases of turkeys and chickens will be discussed. Basic concepts in poultry disease diagnosis, prevention and treatment will be emphasized. The course will consist of lectures, laboratory and field experiences.

VMP 983 – Poultry Health Management II – Poultry Health Management II is a clinical rotation elective for 4th year veterinary students with a commitment to pursuing a career in poultry health management or food animal production. This course is offered throughout the year and may be repeated with permission of the instructor. The course will consist of laboratory and/or field experiences designed to meet the student’s career goals. A list of available externships in poultry health management, which may be applicable for this course can be found on the Association of Avian Pathologists web site: http://www.aaap.info/index.html, under Educational Opportunities, Senior Veterinary Student Externships approved by the Kenneth Eskelund Preceptorship Committee. Funds to help pay for travel expenses may be available through the Kenneth Eskelund Preceptorship; see information at the web site listed above. Instructor Permission Required.

VMC 948 – Radiation Oncology – This elective clinical rotation provides an introduction to veterinary radiation oncology. Basic information about radiation therapy equipment, treatment planning and delivery, and outcome of patients treated for various cancers with radiation therapy will be emphasized. Students will be assigned cases being seen by the radiation oncology service as inpatients, outpatients, and new referral appointments. Instructor Permission Required.

VMB 976 – Radiology Every senior must take this core course. This rotation will provide practical training in the production of quality radiographic examinations and will help develop interpretation skills in diagnostic radiology. Students are expected to be familiar with material covered in the junior radiology course (VMB 960), as it will be incorporated into this rotation. Review of the auto-tutorial teaching cases, located in the “Star Wars” room, is suggested. The radiology rotation is oriented toward teaching and service. Learning experiences result from a combination of direct contact with the faculty, residents, technicians, and classmates. You will make diagnostic quality radiographs, participate in morning rounds and review didactic material, VMB 960 teaching files, and ask questions.

VMC 997 – Raptor Medicine and Rehabilitation – This elective senior year rotation allows students to obtain clinical experience in raptor medicine and rehabilitation at Carolina Raptor Center in Charlotte, NC. Students will develop skills with species identification, capture and handling, physical examination, bandaging, diagnostic sample collection and interpretation, emergency stabilization and treatment techniques, necropsy, anesthesia and surgery assistance, and captive management and husbandry issues. A maximum of two students will be permitted in each clinical rotation. Instructor Permission Required

VMC 930 – Rehabilitation and Mobility In this course, students will gain an understanding of veterinary rehabilitation therapy, including principles and protocols of assessment and treatment, tissue healing, the theory and application of treatment modalities, and the common conditions treated.

VMP 970 – Ruminant Health Management I – This is a two-week block considering health management of ruminant species. During the two-week period, students accompany faculty on visits to farms to deliver health management programs, to investigate health problems, or to consider approaches to enhance productivity. A portion of the course also involves experience in providing individual animal health management and addressing medical/surgical disorders.

VMP 972 – Ruminant Health Management II – This course is intended to allow students with a strong interest in ruminant health management to obtain advanced training. Specialty courses in beef, dairy, small ruminant, pharmacology and embryo transfer will be offered. Instructor Permission Required.

VMP 987 – Ruminant Special Topics – This elective allows goal-directed educational enrichment in Ruminant Practice under the direction of consenting faculty. Formats include clinical experiences, clinical and applied investigations, etc. Topics and times are arranged by the student and consenting faculty. Available to 3rd and 4th year veterinary students only upon consent of faculty. Instructor Permission Required.

VMC 950 – Sea Turtle Medicine & Rehabilitation – This course provides practical experience in husbandry and disease diagnosis and treatment in rehabilitating sea turtles at the Karen Beasley Sea Turtle Rescue and Rehabilitation Center (KBSRRC) in Topsail Beach, NC. Skills to be acquired in clinical and didactic settings include sea turtle husbandry and rehabilitation techniques, diagnostic sample collection and interpretation, physical examination and safe handling, medication delivery, wound treatment, and necropsy protocols.

VMC 960 – Small Animal Emergency Service – This is an elective in the small animal hospital, available throughout the entire year. This service will give senior students the opportunity to assess and treat after-hours emergencies in cats and dogs and possibly some avian and exotic species. When applicable, the students will also be involved in any communications with clients and referring veterinarians.

VMC 973G – Small Animal General Surgery – The student will be provided an opportunity to apply and practice skills, techniques and principles learned in pre-clinic courses by: 1. Obtaining histories and performing physical examinations on animals with surgically related diseases. 2. Deciding an appropriate objective database for diagnosis and therapy reasons. 3. Participating in and performing surgery on routine and complex surgical cases commensurate with the animal’s condition and the student’s ability. 4. Participating in the communication process with the client and referring veterinarian. 5. Demonstrate the ability to research a surgical disease, define a treatment for the disease, decide if the treatment can be performed in a practice setting or if referral is indicated, and give a prognosis for the disease. This skill must be demonstrated in the SOAP for all referral cases. Additional diseases may be assigned.

VMC 973O – Small Animal Orthopedic Surgery – The primary objective is to develop the skills and knowledge that are necessary for the diagnosis and management of orthopedic problems in your patients. Because it is not possible to cover all this in two weeks, the focus will be on developing your communication and diagnostic skills, and your alternatives for their management. An understanding of the anatomy, sterile technique, and the surgical procedure will be expected when assisting. You will be expected to formulate management plans for the postoperative period. You will have primary responsibility for case management, client communication, discharge orders and, in select cases, communication with the referring DVM.

VMP 973 – Special Topics – Epidemiology – The main goal of this course is to provide senior veterinary students with the opportunity for pursuing a focused research topic in the area of veterinary epidemiology and population medicine under the direction of consenting faculty. The exact direction and scope of the topic is agreed upon between the instructor, the student and the course coordinator. The course is offered only by the permission of the participating instructor(s) and the course coordinator. The instructor and the student will work out the type of project, what exact objectives are to be met and how the success of obtaining those objectives will be evaluated. The objectives and methods of evaluation of performance will be negotiated between the veterinary student and the instructor and put into writing in the form of a Plan of Action PRIOR to course permission being granted by the course coordinator. The Plan of Action must be signed by both the instructor and the course coordinator at least 8 weeks prior t the beginning of the rotation. No one textbook is required for this course. Instructor Permission Required.

VMC 941 – Special Topics – Theriogenology Advanced – The primary objective of this course is to provide additional information and training to veterinary students who have taken the VMC 940 Theriogenology senior clinical rotation. Specifically, emphasis is directed to acquaint students with modern and current practices of clinical theriogenology. Various aspects of assisted reproductive technology available to domestic animals will be discussed. It is expected that the majority of the information and activities offered in this course will involve equine species (80%) and, to a lesser extent, canine (10%) and bovine species (10%). Teaching and client-owned animals are available for the rotation. Although emphasis is given on hands-on activities, didactic instruction of selected topics in clinical Theriogenology will be discussed. Instructor Permission Required.

VMP 984 – Swine Medicine & Production I – This course will provide senior veterinary students with techniques and expertise to approach a clinical swine problem. Students will evaluate clinical signs, analyze production records, assess facilities and management, institute a diagnostic plan and establish an economically feasible solution to the clinical problem. The outline for this course may vary slightly from year to year, but the following topics will be covered: necropsy procedures/sample techniques; interpreting serologic/virologic results; farm visits – review building/equipment designs; practical swine reproductive management; practical bacteriology; practical swine nutrition/rations; swine record systems/PigChamp.

VMP 985 – Swine Medicine & Production II – This course will provide senior veterinary students with the opportunity to utilize the techniques and expertise gained in VMF 984. Students will evaluate clinical and production problems on a variety of swine farms. Practicum/field work and independent study will be conducted on commercial swine farms, usually with a veterinary practitioner or faculty member. Instructor Permission Required.

VMC 940 – Theriogenology – This course is designed to instruct students in clinical theriogenology. It will be primarily oriented toward equine and canine species; however, cases and problems from other species will be seen and included as teaching materials. The students will improve upon the skills learned in VMF 951 and will be expected to use these skills in dealing with clinical cases and laboratory type situations. Transabdominal, vaginal, and rectal examination of the reproductive tract, semen collection, and evaluation will be taught during this course. This course may be repeated as many times as a student wishes during their senior year.

VMB 976A – Ultrasound – The objective of the block is to provide fundamental practical training in small animal abdominal sonography. The rotation is oriented towards teaching primarily through the clinic caseload with as much “hands on” opportunity as is practical. There will be minimal didactic teaching material, some required reading and a brief case report to complete. At the completion of the rotation, students are expected to know the basic physics of diagnostic ultrasound, be able to explain common artifacts and to be able to recognize and obtain diagnostic images of the major abdominal organs.

VMC 976 – Veterinary Critical Care – This is an elective clinical rotation in the small animal hospital, available at select times in the year. This service will give senior students the opportunity to assess and treat after-hours emergencies in cats and dogs. The students will also be responsible for communications with clients and referring veterinarians. This course is available only for fourth years students in the small animal, exotic and mixed animal focus areas. Students in Zoological Medicine, Pathology and Lab Animal Medicine must receive instructor approval.

VMP 999 – Extramural Experiences – Veterinary International Programs – This course will provide students with practical experience in a foreign country working on a veterinary medicine-related project being conducted in that country. Projects may focus on production medicine, occupational safety, zoological medicine, or basic research. Course Objectives: At the conclusion of the course the student will have demonstrated that they can communicate clearly and implement appropriate professional conduct in an international setting. The student should be able to establish and maintain regular communications with their faculty mentors both in country and at NCSU throughout their experience. The student should understand and be able to communicate the experiences and knowledge they gained from their field experience to an audience of their peers. The student should be able to prepare appropriately for an international trip and manage logistics and safe travel arrangements for their own travel. The student will prepare a comprehensive report of their activities and contacts developed during their international experience. Contact Dr. Michael Levy if interested in this experience.

VMC 964 – Zoological Husbandry and Nutrition – This course is designed to provide senior veterinary students with husbandry and nutrition of zoo animals while learning the importance of prevention of disease in captive wildlife. Students participate in formal rounds, autodidactic exercises, and hands on animal care delivery. Successful completion of three Zoological Medicine Selectives or course coordinator’s permission. Prerequisite: Zool Med Focus Area; OR Instructor Approval.

VMC 989 – Zoological Medicine – This course is designed to introduce the senior veterinary students to clinical zoological medicine. Students will gain practical experience in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease in captive, zoological specimens maintained in zoos. Students participate in formal rounds, autodidactic exercises, and case management at the N. C. Zoological Park. Must have approval of course instructor. Prerequisite: Zool Med Focus Area; OR Prerequisite: VMC 964 and Instructor Approval.

VMC 947 – Practice Management – This rotation is designed for students interested in obtaining a deeper understanding of how to manage a successful veterinary practice. This experience will give students the opportunity to apply business principles learned in the classroom to real world practices. Students will use assessment tools provided to analyze veterinary practices and provide constructive feedback to practice owners. Students will be expected to interview practice owners and staff, observe practice flow and patient care, and perform an in depth financial analysis. Students will then prepare a written summary and present their findings and appropriate recommendations to the practice owner(s).

VMP 990E – Extramural Experiences in Equine – Senior DVM students will have the opportunity to undertake a rotation in an approved private practice in equine practice. The practice opportunity will meet the need to increase “hands on” experience in a private practice setting as part of focus area requirements. The course will ensure that consistency exists between experiences, with clear expectations to achieve an approved level of learning/skills objectives with verification from the practice. Practitioners will be valuable partners in the educational process in the senior year, providing access to individual animal and herd-related clinical diversity that is increasingly difficult to offer in the academic setting.

VMP 990F – Extramural Experiences in Food Animal/Mixed Animal – Senior DVM students will have the opportunity to undertake a rotation in an approved private practice in food animal/rural practice or mixed animal practice. The practice opportunity will meet the need to increase “hands on” experience in a private practice setting as part of focus area requirements. The course will ensure that consistency exists between experiences, with clear expectations to achieve an approved level of learning/skills objectives with verification from the practice. Practitioners will be valuable partners in the educational process in the senior year, providing access to individual animal and herd-related clinical diversity that is increasingly difficult to offer in the academic setting.

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