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Ronald Baynes

Professor

CVM Main Building D343

Bio

Dr. Baynes obtained his B.Sc. (Biology) from the University of the West Indies, veterinary degree from Tuskegee University, MS in pharmacology from the University of Georgia, and Ph.D. in pharmacology from North Carolina State University. He is currently a Professor of Pharmacology at NCSU College of Veterinary Medicine and prior to his current appointment, he was a Toxicologist at Syracuse Research Corporation in Atlanta, GA.
Dr. Baynes’ primary responsibilities at NCSU College of Veterinary Medicine for the last 21 years include teaching and research in two areas of quantitative pharmacology and toxicology. (1) Formulation and mixture effects on drug and chemical disposition of topical formulations leading to the development of Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models to inform risk assessment of skin exposures to chemical mixtures. (2) Contaminant and veterinary drug residue pharmacology and development of novel pharmacokinetics modeling approaches to inform risk management of veterinary drug residues via the national Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD) program.
Dr. Baynes’ research at NCSU has been supported by several NIH, USDA, US DOD, and industrial grants. He has generated more than 130 peer-reviewed publications and book chapters pertaining to his teaching, extension, and research activities. In addition to training of veterinary graduate students in his laboratory, he is actively involved in preparing undergraduate and DVM students for careers in veterinary research through several honors and summer programs.

AFFILIATIONS

American Chemical Society
Society of Toxicology
American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sigma Xi

CERTIFICATIONS

DVM, Tuskegee University
PhD, Pharmacology, North Carolina State University
MS, Pharmacology, University of Georgia
BSc, Biology, University of the West Indies

NC FARAD Program

FARAD is a university-based national program located at NC State University, University of Florida, Virginia Tech, Kansas State University, and University of California Davis.FARAD serves as the primary source for scientifically-based recommendations regarding safe withdrawal intervals of drugs and chemicals in food-producing animals. As such, FARAD is a key resource for protection of our nation’s food supply, including meat, milk and eggs, against accidental contamination of animal-derived foods with violative residues of drugs, pesticides or other agents that could compromise food safety.

Through the assimilation of a comprehensive drug database and the use of state-of-the-art pharmacokinetic modeling, FARAD scientists determine appropriate withdrawal periods for a wide array of chemical entities and provide this information to veterinarians, extension specialists and livestock producers through a toll-free call center as well as a publicly-accessible web site (FARMWeb). In addition, FARAD provides rapid response assistance regarding extra-label use of drugs in animal agriculture, and during food contamination emergencies which might arise from accidental exposure to environmental toxins, particularly pesticides, or intentional efforts to contaminate the food supply. Finally, FARAD provides assistance in trade matters related to foreign drug approvals and trains future veterinarians in the principles of residue avoidance.

Faculty and Collaborators:
Ronald Baynes, PD, Professor of Pharmacology
Jennifer Halleran Co-PI, Food Animal Veterinarian
Derek Foster: Co-PI, Associate Professor of Ruminant Medicine
Kristen Messenger: Co-PI, Assistant Professor of Pharmacology
Rob DeWoskin, Adjunct Professor, and Science Adviser
Jim Riviere, Professor Emeritus, Science Adviser
Danielle Mzyk, Food Animal Veterinarian and Science Adviser

Ph.D Graduate Students:
Ranee Miller
Farha Sheela

 

Area(s) of Expertise

COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY AND BIOINFORMATICS, GLOBAL HEALTH, PHARMACOLOGY
Comparative Pharmacokinetics
This primarily involves drug/chemical Pharmacokinetics and Risk Management of residues following livestock exposure to veterinary drugs and/or chemical contaminants. Current research activities are focused on development of novel pharmacometric approaches (e.g., PBPK, PopPK) and model validation in appropriate veterinary species. Extension activities via the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD) are focused on providing expert consultation to U.S. veterinarians and livestock farmers about drug/chemical residues in livestock, development of algorithms for estimating safe withdrawal intervals following extralabel drug exposure and development of residue avoidance programs internationally (gFARAD). The laboratory has been active in analytical method development for drug and chemical residues in various tissue matrices using UPLC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS methods.

Dermal Absorption Assessment:
Current research activities are focused on assessing the dermal disposition of topical drug formulations and complex chemical mixtures (e.g., drugs, pesticides, cutting fluids, jet fuel additives). This research is providing some understanding of the physicochemical factors influencing dermal absorption of these formulation additives that cause occupational irritant dermatitis. Various live animal models (e. g. porcine model) and in vitro diffusion models (e.g., Franz Static Diffusion Cells, Bronaugh Flow-through Diffusion Cells) as well as in silico models (e.g., QSAR) have been utilized to better our understanding of physicochemical factors that influence drug and chemical diffusion across skin in human and various animal species.

Publications

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Grants

Date: 01/01/22 - 12/31/23
Amount: $247,036.00
Funding Agencies: National Institute of Standards & Technology

The per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) family of chemicals has been used extensively across many commercial products for decades, but their persistent and toxic nature has resulted in them being linked to multiple adverse health effects in recent years. Firefighters can have increased exposure to these compounds by burning treated materials, working with aqueous film-forming foams, and through contact with their protective clothing, which are often treated with the chemicals to impart repellency. This project seeks to determine the extent to which a selection of PFAS chemicals can transfer from protective clothing and absorb into the skin to improve the health and safety of firefighters.

Date: 09/01/22 - 8/31/23
Amount: $810,000.00
Funding Agencies: US Dept. of Agriculture - National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA NIFA)

The Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD) program is a chemical food safety program that has been in existence for almost 40 years. This has been a collaborative effort by scientists from five veterinary colleges at North Carolina State University, University of California Davis, University of Florida, Kansas State University, and Virginia Tech Virginia-Maryland. The goal of FARAD is to provide the most updated information resulting in the production of safe foods of animal origin through the prevention and mitigation of violative chemical (drug, pesticide, natural toxins, and environmental contaminant) residues. The program accomplishes this through its objectives which are to identify, extract, assemble, evaluate and distribute reviewed information about residue avoidance and mitigation to persons such as veterinarians, extension agents, and regulatory scientists involved in residue avoidance programs throughout the United States. Each of the FARAD centers has expertise for delivery of the required information which eliminates redundancies and allows for smooth collaboration of collective talents unique to the field of veterinary pharmacokinetics research and related database management. The primary role of FARAD at NCSU is to respond to residue cases in livestock from food animal veterinarians and extension specialist, develop a population pharmacokinetics (PopPK) – Responder interface that takes into account population variance while facilitating its use by FARAD responders on the front lines of residue cases, and to provide research support that attempts to validate estimated withdrawal intervals following extralabel drug use. The latter is the primary reason why FARAD is utilized in residue cases.

Date: 06/01/22 - 8/31/23
Amount: $5,000.00
Funding Agencies: Triangle Community Foundation

Ashlyn’s interest in aquatic species health and welfare inspired her to develop the proposed project for this application to develop a protocol for the use of the common NSAID flunixin meglumine in frogs (and potentially other amphibians). The aim of her study is to determine the pharmacokinetics of topical transdermal flunixin meglumine in North American bullfrogs. Dr. Balko, an expert in aquatic species anesthesia and analgesia, Dr. Ron Baynes, a boardcertified veterinary pharmacologist with many years of experience performing clinical pharmacology studies in a variety of species, and Dr. Larry Minter, the Director of Animal Health at the North Carolina Zoo and adjunct NCSU CVM faculty member, will serve as her mentors for this project. This study will provide fundamental pharmacokinetic data to allow application of this therapeutic strategy to frogs and perhaps other amphibians- information critical to health care for these animals as well as pain control that will impact care and use of aquatic animal species such as bullfrogs in biological and biomedical research.

Date: 09/01/21 - 8/31/23
Amount: $810,000.00
Funding Agencies: US Dept. of Agriculture - National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA NIFA)

The Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD) program is a chemical food safety program that has been in existence for more than 38 years. This has been a collaborative effort by scientists from five veterinary colleges at North Carolina State University, University of California Davis, University of Florida, Kansas State University, and Virginia Tech Virginia-Maryland. The goal of FARAD is to provide the most updated information resulting in the production of safe foods of animal origin through the prevention and mitigation of violative chemical (drug, pesticide, natural toxins, and environmental contaminant) residues. The program accomplishes this through its objectives which are to identify, extract, assemble, evaluate and distribute reviewed information about residue avoidance and mitigation to persons such as veterinarians, extension agents, and regulatory scientists involved in residue avoidance programs throughout the United States. Each of the FARAD centers has expertise for delivery of the required information which eliminates redundancies and allows for smooth collaboration of collective talents unique to the field of veterinary pharmacokinetics research and related database management. The primary role of FARAD at NCSU is to respond to residue cases in livestock from food animal veterinarians and extension specialist, develop a population pharmacokinetics (PopPK) – Responder interface that takes into account population variance while facilitating its use by FARAD responders on the front lines of residue cases, and to provide research support that attempts to validate estimated withdrawal intervals following extralabel drug use. The latter is the primary reason why FARAD is utilized in residue cases.

Date: 09/01/20 - 8/31/23
Amount: $810,000.00
Funding Agencies: US Dept. of Agriculture - National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA NIFA)

The Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD) program is a chemical food safety program that has been in existence for more than 37 years. This has been a collaborative effort by scientists from five veterinary colleges at North Carolina State University, University of California Davis, University of Florida, Kansas State University, and Virginia Tech Virginia-Maryland. The goal of FARAD is to provide the most updated information resulting in the production of safe foods of animal origin through the prevention and mitigation of violative chemical (drug, pesticide, natural toxins, and environmental contaminant) residues. The program accomplishes this through its objectives which are to identify, extract, assemble, evaluate and distribute reviewed information about residue avoidance and mitigation to persons such as veterinarians, extension agents, and regulatory scientists involved in residue avoidance programs throughout the United States. Each of the FARAD centers has expertise for delivery of the required information which eliminates redundancies and allows for smooth collaboration of collective talents unique to the field of veterinary pharmacokinetics research and related database management. The primary role of FARAD at NCSU is to respond to residue cases in livestock from food animal veterinarians and extension specialist, develop a population pharmacokinetics (PopPK) – Responder interface that takes into account population variance while facilitating its use by FARAD responders on the front lines of residue cases, and to provide research support that attempts to validate estimated withdrawal intervals following extralabel drug use. The latter is the primary reason why FARAD is utilized in residue cases.

Date: 11/14/22 - 4/30/23
Amount: $145,977.00
Funding Agencies: Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Consortium

Large scale testing of chemical protective apparel for the Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (JPEO-CBRND) Joint Project Manager CBRN Protection (JPM CBRN P) is an important part of its assessment for use in the field. Due to the high toxicity of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), the skin dose incurred under relevant exposure scenarios is assessed using a simulant with similar physical properties. Methyl Salicylate (MeS) is a commonly used simulant for assessing sulfur mustard (HD) exposure. The dose of MeS in contact with the skin is currently estimated via its uptake onto Passive Adsorbent Dosimeters (PADs) placed at several sampling points across the body of human test participants. The degree to which the data collected by these samplers represent an actual whole-body dose is poorly understood. Typically, the measured amounts of MeS on each sampler are analyzed through a Body Region Hazard Analysis to determine the protection factor at each sampler location as well as a summation of all data points to estimate a systemic or total body protection factor. Having a better understanding of whole-body dose following skin exposure to MeS would enable more accurate assessments of the effectiveness of vapor-protective clothing.

Date: 09/01/17 - 8/31/22
Amount: $240,430.00
Funding Agencies: US Dept. of Agriculture - National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA NIFA)

The majority of underserved regions identified in the USDA VMLRP cannot support a food animal exclusive veterinarian, posing a significant risk to food safety through violative drug residues. Therefore, it is critical that we educate mixed animal, small animal and equine veterinarians on appropriate drug use and residue avoidance in food animals as these practitioners must be the primary resource for farms in underserved areas. To meet this need, we will leverage the resources of the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD) to provide targeted outreach and education to these practitioners. This will include in person continuing education seminars on residue avoidance at national and regional conferences that cater to non-food animal practitioners. Futher, online training modules will broaden the impact of the training to reach veterinarians across the country. These efforts will expand the reach of FARAD, increasing the number of requests for assistance. To appropriately respond to this anticipated increase in demand, we will create a combined internship program in residue avoidance and food animal medicine. These interns will be prepared to enter rural practice or an advanced training program. During this yearlong training, they will assist with the outreach described above and respond to withdrawal requests from practitioners. The expected outcomes of this project include broadly educating rural non-food animal practitioners in residue avoidance to assist in underserved areas, supporting FARAD to respond to these practitioners' needs, and preparing a group of veterinarians to directly address the needs of rural areas through a collaborative internship program.

Date: 01/01/20 - 12/31/21
Amount: $29,992.00
Funding Agencies: American Veterinary Medical Foundation

Castration is a common procedure performed on US swine farms to prevent unwanted breeding, reduce aggression and improve meat quality. This procedure results in pain experienced by the piglet as demonstrated by physiological and behavioral deviations from normal (Prunier et al., 2006). Providing pain relief to livestock is necessary to maintain consumer trust and improve animal welfare, but to date, there are no drugs currently labeled for analgesia in swine in the United States (US). Transdermal flunixin is approved for use in cattle for pain management associated with foot rot. This product can be utilized for pain management in piglets undergoing castration as part of the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act (AMDUCA). Given ease of administration, flunixin administered topically may be a promising product that can effectively be implemented into a large commercial swine system. To date, no published studies have evaluated the efficacy of transdermal flunixin on pain mitigation in castrated piglets. Therefore, the objective of this study is to quantify the efficacy of transdermal flunixin on acute pain mitigation in castrated piglets. In addition, logistics of implementing this pain management procedure including labor and cost will be quantified to further understand the economic impact and applicability of implementing pain management procedures during castration.

Date: 09/01/19 - 8/31/21
Amount: $830,000.00
Funding Agencies: US Dept. of Agriculture - National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA NIFA)

Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD) is a chemical food safety program that has been in existence for more than 37 years. This has been a collaborative effort by scientists from four veterinary colleges at North Carolina State University, University of California Davis, University of Florida, Kansas State University, and recently Virginia Tech Virginia-Maryland in 2018-2019. The goal of FARAD is to provide the most updated information resulting in the production of safe foods of animal origin through the prevention and mitigation of violative chemical (drug, pesticide, natural toxins, and environmental contaminant) residues. The program accomplishes this through its objectives which are to identify, extract, assemble, evaluate and distribute reviewed information about residue avoidance and mitigation to persons such as veterinarians, extension agents, and regulatory scientists involved in residue avoidance programs throughout the United States. Each of the FARAD centers has expertise for delivery of the required information which eliminates redundancies and allows for smooth collaboration of collective talents unique to the field of veterinary pharmacokinetics research and related database management. The primary role of FARAD at NCSU is to respond to residue cases in livestock from food animal veterinarians and extension specialist, develop a population pharmacokinetics (PopPK) – Responder interface that takes into account population variance while facilitating its use by FARAD responders on the front lines of residue cases, and to provide research support that attempts to validate estimated withdrawal intervals following extralabel drug use. The latter is the primary reason FARAD is utilized in residue cases.

Date: 07/01/19 - 3/01/21
Amount: $122,295.00
Funding Agencies: Agile Sciences, Inc.

This study will be a preliminary effort to examine the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of a new antibiotic potentiator using a goat model of induced mastitis. Lactating goats will be challenged via the mammary gland with a defined culture of a specific Staphylococcus aureus isolate. When clinical mastitis is present, goats will be treated with antibiotics and with or without the potentiator of interest. Endpoints will be compared. A study of pharmacokinetics will be completed during the study and blood and tissue levels of the potentiator will be determined at the endpoint.


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