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Diagnostic Testing Lab – Department of Clinical Sciences 

Intracellular Pathogens Research Lab

Contact us:    919.513.8281   |      jmbradl3@ncsu.edu

One Health Definition:

One Health is the integrative effort of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally, and globally to attain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment. Together, the three make up the One Health triad, and the health of each is inextricably connected to the others in the triad. The IPRL focuses on research that benefits one health.

We look to provide quality answers to research questions. The assays, antigens and controls used are developed and validated as a component of our research. We reserve the right to modify methods or reagents as needed to achieve the best analysis possible without reliance on any proprietary method or reagents. We give each case with which we become involved the highest quality and attention possible.

Sponsors

The important work that has been performed in this program has been made possible by generous donations and research grants awarded. These donations and grants allow us to continue our work to increase the knowledge of infectious diseases and increase the clinicians’ ability to diagnose and treat effectively.

Support our Research

Imagine an innovative, new discovery could span species and provide hope and healing to not only humans, but also cats, dogs, horses, and other mammals.

This dream is close to being realized through the combined research partnership of Infectious Disease Specialist Dr. Edward Breitschwerdt and Oncology Genetics Specialist Dr. Matthew Breen. Research is underway at N.C. State, but they need your help. If you (or your client) would like to make a donation (tax deductible) in support of our vector borne disease research, outbreak investigations and pro bono consultations provided by the NC State College of Veterinary Medicine faculty, click the button below.

Your donation could lead patients and their families to a much awaited diagnosis and to receive the gift of health.

Support Our Research 

Interactions with veterinarians throughout the world have led to Lab investigations of complicated cases involving a single sick animal or disease outbreaks involving entire kennels.  The IPRL has frequently participated in these case-based or kennel outbreak studies without considering remuneration. Unfortunately, there is not a CDC or USDA equivalent for companion animal diseases; therefore, there is no infrastructure or established source of funds to address unusual illnesses in pets.Over the years, we have supported a spectrum of outreach and educational opportunities. As examples, students’ at all academic levels and from many national and international locations, have had the experience of working in a research laboratory or have participated in a focused research project related to vector borne infectious diseases of companion animals or wildlife species. We are proud of the fact that many of our undergraduate and graduate students have subsequently pursued careers in research or medicine (both human and veterinary medicine).

We Are Grateful to Our Current Sponsors

  • Bayer Animal Health
  • IDEXX Laboratories

Principal Investigators

Graduate Students

Staff

Selected Examples of Our Research 

  • In response to a referring veterinarian’s call in the mid 1980’s seeking consultation relative to sick and dying Huskies in a newly built kennel in North Carolina, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever was diagnosed by skin biopsy and first identified as a disease of dogs.
    Published article: Canine Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a kennel epizootic.  Breitschwerdt EB, Meuten DJ, Walker DH, Levy M, Kennedy K, King M, Curtis B. Am J Vet Res. 1985;46:2124-8
  • In the summer of 1997, the Lab undertook an unfunded investigation of a kennel of sick and dying Walker Hounds routinely used for deer hunting in rural North Carolina. A high degree of co-infection was documented by serology and molecular assays. By PCR, of the 27 dogs, 15 were infected with Ehrlichia canis, 9 with E.chaffeensis, 8 with E.ewingii, 3 with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 9 with A.platys, 20 with a Rickettsia species, 16 with a Bartonella species, and 7 with Babesia canis. Both E. canis and an uncharacterized Rickettsia species appeared to result in chronic or recurrent infection. As an outcome of this study, lessons were learned about the detection of co-infecting species with an appreciation for high risk populations exposed to numerous ticks.
    Published article: Kordick SK, Breitschwerdt EB, Hegarty BC, Southwick KL, Colitz CM, Hancock SI, Bradley JM, Rumbough R, Mcpherson JT, MacCormack JN. Coinfection with multiple tick-borne pathogens in a Walker Hound kennel in North Carolina. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Aug;37(8):2631-8
  • Research on dogs from kennels of American pit bull terriers and of racing and retired Greyhounds, established an association between dog breed and Babesia spp. Babesia gibsoni-infected dogs were more likely to be American pit bull terriers and B. canis vogeli infected dogs were more likely to be greyhounds. These studies described the initial detection of a B. gibsoni epidemic amongst the pit bull terrier population.
    Published articles:(1) Birkenheuer AJ, Levy MG, Stebbins M, Poore M, Breitschwerdt E. Serosurvey of antiBabesia antibodies in stray dogs and American pit bull terriers and American staffordshire terriers from North Carolina. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2003 Nov-Dec;39(6):551-7. (2) Birkenheuer AJ, Correa MT, Levy MG, Breitschwerdt EB. Geographic distribution of babesiosis among dogs in the United States and association with dog bites: 150 cases (2000-2003). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005 Sep 15;227(6):942-7
  • Initial description of the demographic and clinical characteristics of feline cytauxzoonosis was obtained through a retrospective study of 34 C.felis infected cats. Pancytopenia and icterus were the most common clinicopathologic abnormalities. Thirty- two cats either died or were euthanatized, and 2 cats survived. Data indicated that veterinarians in the mid-Atlantic region of the USA should consider C felis infection in cats with fever, icterus, and pancytopenia or bicytopenia.
    Published article: Birkenheuer AJ, Le JA, Valenzisi AM, Tucker MD, Levy MG, Breitschwerdt EB. Cytauxzoon felis infection in cats in the mid-Atlantic states: 34 cases (1998-2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006 Feb 15;228(4):568-71
  • The initial recognition of Leishmaniasis in the USA came after a veterinarian north of NYC called concerning fatalities amongst some 120 hounds in a breeding and foxhunting kennel. Upon the suspicion of tick borne disease, serological and molecular testing was requested. Extensive workups, mostly unfunded, on all 120 hounds, including cytology and full necropsies on several at NCSU CVM Teaching Hospital finally resulted in a diagnosis of L.infantum. Further epidemiological workups on the part of the CDC defined the outbreak in this kennel and in other foxhound kennels that trained in southern states as an epidemic of Leishmaniasis unrecognized previously in North America. The VBDDL developed specific IFA and PCR assays to address the diagnosis of Leishmaniasis in the future and aided in the screening of all foxhound kennels in the US.
    Published article: Gaskin AA, Schantz P, Jackson J, Birkenheuer A, Tomlinson L, Gramiccia M, Levy M, Steurer F, Kollmar E, Hegarty BC, Ahn A, Breitschwerdt EB. Visceral leishmaniasis in a New York foxhound kennel. J Vet Intern Med. 2002 Jan-Feb;16(1):34-44.

Bartonella Research Publications: Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory

Bartonella Research Publications:
Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory

Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine.

  1. Breitschwerdt EB, DL Kordick, DE Malarkey, et al: Endocarditis in a dog due to infection with a novel Bartonella J Clin Microbiol 33: 154–160, 1995.
  2. Kordick DL, KH Wilson, DJ Sexton, TL Hadfield, HA Berkhoff, DJ Sexton, EB Breitschwerdt: Prolonged Bartonella bacteremia in cats associated with cat scratch disease patients. J Clin Microbiol 33: 3245–3251, 1995.
  3. Kordick DL, EB Breitschwerdt: Intraerythrocytic presence of Bartonella henselae. J Clin Microbiol 33: 1655–1656, 1995.
  4. Kordick DL, B Swaminathan, CT Greene, KH Wilson, S O’Connor, DG Hollis, GM Matar, GB Malcolm, PS Hayes, TL Hadfield, EB Breitschwerdt, DJ Brenner: Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii subsp. nov., isolated from dogs; Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii; and emended description of Bartonella vinsonii. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46: 704–709, 1996.
  5. Baneth G, DL Kordick, BC Hegarty, EB Breitschwerdt: Comparative seroreactivity to Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana among cats from Israel and North Carolina. Vet Microbiol 50: 95–103, 1996.
  6. Pappalardo BL, MT Correa, CC York, CY Peat, EB Breitschwerdt: Epidemiologic evaluation of the risk factors associated with exposure and seroreactivity to Bartonella vinsonii in dogs. Am J Vet Res 58: 467–471, 1997.
  7. Kordick DL, EJ Hilyard, TL Hadfield, KH Wilson, AG Steigerwalt, DJ Brenner, EB Breitschwerdt: Bartonella clarridgeiae, a newly recognized zoonotic pathogen causing inoculation papules, fever, and lymphadenopathy (Cat Scratch Disease). J Clin Microbiol 35: 1813–1818, 1997.
  8. Kordick DL, MG Papich, EB Breitschwerdt: Efficacy of enrofloxacin or doxycycline for treatment of Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae infection in cats. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:2448–2455, 1997.
  9. Kordick DL, EB Breitschwerdt: Persistent infection of pets within a household with three Bartonella Emerg Infect Dis 4: 325–328, 1998.
  10. Breitschwerdt EB, BC Hegarty, SI Hancock: Sequential evaluation of dogs naturally-infected with Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia equi, Ehrlichia ewingii or Bartonella vinsonii. J Clin Microbiol 36: 2645–2651, 1998.
  11. Kordick DL, TT Brown, KO Shin, EB Breitschwerdt: Clinical and pathological evaluation of chronic Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae infection in cats. J Clin Microbiol 37: 1536–1547, 1999.
  12. Breitschwerdt EB, CE Atkins, TT Brown, DL Kordick, PS Snyder: Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii and related members of the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria in dogs with cardiac arrhythmias, endocarditis, or myocarditis. J Clin Microbiol 37: 3618–3626, 1999.
  13. Kitchell BE, TM Fan, D Kordick, EB Breitschwerdt, G Wollenberg, CA Lichtensteiger: Peliosis hepatis in a dog infected with Bartonella henselae. J Am Vet Med Assoc 216: 519–523, 2000.
  14. Pappalardo BL, T Brown, JL Gookin, CL Morrill, EB Breitschwerdt: Granulomatous disease associated with Bartonella infection in 2 dogs. J Vet Intern Med 14: 37–42, 2000.
  15. Rotstein DS, SK Taylor, J Bradley, EB Breitschwerdt: Prevalence of Bartonella henselae antibody in Florida panthers. J Wildl Dis 36:157–160, 2000.
  16. Jensen WA, MZ Fall, J Rooney, DL Kordick, EB Breitschwerdt: Rapid identification and differentiation of Bartonella species using a single-step PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 38:1717-1722, 2000.
  17. Chang C-C, RW Kasten, BB Chomel, DC Simpson, CM Hew, DL Kordick, R Heller, Y Piemont, EB Breitschwerdt: Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the reservoir for a human pathogenic Bartonella: molecular epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in coyotes from central coastal California. J Clin Microbiol 38:4193-4200, 2000.
  18. Pappalardo BL, T Brown, D Gebhardt, S Sontakke, EB Breitschwerdt: Cyclic CD8+ lymphopenia in dogs experimentally infected with Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii.  Vet Immunol Immunopathol  75:43-57, 2000.
  19. Lappin MR, DL Kordick, EB Breitschwerdt: Bartonella spp antibodies and DNA in aqueous humour of cats.  J Feline Med Surg 2:61-68, 2000.
  20. Muñana KR, SM Vitek, BC Hegarty, DL Kordick, EB Breitschwerdt: Infection of fetal feline brain cells in culture with Bartonella henselae.  Infect Immun 69:564-569, 2001.
  21. Breitschwerdt EB, S Sontakke, A Cannedy, JM Bradley: Infection with Bartonella weissii and detection of Nanobacterium antigens in a North Carolina beef herd.  J Clin Microbiol 39:879-882, 2001.
  22. Pappalardo BL, TT Brown, M Tompkins, EB Breitschwerdt: Immunopathology of Bartonella vinsonii (berkhoffii) in experimentally infected dogs.  Vet Immunol Immunopathol 83:125-147, 2001.
  23. Mexas AM, SI Hancock, EB Breitschwerdt: Bartonella henselae and Bartonella elizabethae as potential canine pathogens.  J Clin Microbiol 40:4670-4674, 2002.
  24. Pitulle C, C Strehse, JW Brown, EB Breitschwerdt: Investigation of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Bartonella based on comparative sequence analysis of the rnpB gene, 16S rDNA, and 23S rDNA.  Intern J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:2075-2080; 2002.
  25. Gillespie TN, RJ Washabau, MH Goldschmidt, JM Cullen, AR Rogala, EB Breitschwerdt: Detection of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae DNA in hepatic specimens from two dogs with hepatic disease.  J Am Vet Med Assoc 222:47-51; 2003.
  26. Breitschwerdt EB, J Suksawat, B Chomel, BC Hegarty: The immunologic response of dogs to Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii antigens: as assessed by Western immunoblot analysis.  J Vet Diagn Invest 15:349-354; 2003.
  27. Michau TM, EB Breitschwerdt, BC Gilger, MG Davidson: Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii as a possible cause of anterior uveitis and choroiditis in a dog.  Vet Ophthalmol 6:299-304; 2003.
  28. Tuttle AD, AH Birkenheuer, T Juopperi, MG Levy, EB Breitschwerdt: Concurrent bartonellosis and babesiosis in a dog with persistent thrombocytopenia.  J Am Vet Med Assoc 223:1306-1310; 2003.
  29. Nutter FB, JP Dubey, JF Levine, EB Breitschwerdt, RB Ford, MK Stoskopf: Seroprevalences of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii and fecal shedding of Cryptospordium spp., Giardia spp., and Toxocara cati in feral and pet domestic cats.  J Am Vet Med Assoc 225:1394-1398; 2004.
  30. Breitschwerdt EB, KR Blann, ME Stebbins, KR Muñana, MG Davidson, HA Jackson, MD Willard: Clinicopathologic abnormalities and treatment response in 24 dogs seroreactive to Bartonella vinsonii (berkhoffii) antigens.  J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 40:92-101; 2004.
  31. Solango-Gallego L, J Bradley, B Hegarty, B Sigmon, E Breitschwerdt: Bartonella henselae IgG antibodies are prevalent in dogs from southeastern USA.  Vet Res 35:585-595; 2004.
  32. Smith BE, MB Tompkins, EB Breitschwerdt: Antinuclear antibodies can be detected in dog sera reactive to Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii, Ehrlichia canis, or Leishmania infantum antigens. J Vet Intern Med 18:47-51; 2004.
  33. Maggi RG, EB Breitschwerdt: Isolation of bacteriophages from Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii and the characterization of Pap31 gene sequences from bacterial and phage DNA.  J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 9(1):44-51; 2005.
  34. Dillon B, J Iredell, EB Breitschwerdt, RG Maggi: Potential limitations of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region for molecular detection of Bartonella species.  J Clin Microbiol 43(9):4921-4922; 2005.
  35. Maggi RG, AW Duncan, EB Breitschwerdt: Novel chemically modified liquid medium that will support the growth of seven Bartonella J Clin Microbiol 43(6):2651-2655; 2005.
  36. Breitschwerdt EB, BC Hegarty, R Maggi, E Hawkins, P Dyer: Bartonella species as a potential cause of epistaxis in dogs.  J Clin Microbiol 43(5):2529-2533; 2005.
  37. Maggi RG, EB Breitschwerdt: Potential limitations of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region for molecular detection of Bartonella  J Clin Microbiol 43(3):1171-1176; 2005.
  38. Roura X, E Breitschwerdt, A Lloret, L Ferrer, B Hegarty: Serological evidence of exposure to Rickettsia, Bartonella, and Ehrlichia species in healthy or Leishmania infantum-infected dogs from Barcelona.  Intern J Appl Vet Res 3:129-137; 2005.
  39. Goodman RA, EB Breitschwerdt: Clinicopathological findings in dogs seroreactive to Bartonella henselae Am J Vet Res 66:2060-2064; 2005.
  40. Maggi RG, CA Harms, AA Hoh, DA Pabst, WA McClellan, WJ Walton, DS Rotstein, EB Breitschwerdt: Bartonella henselae in porpoise blood.  Emerg Infect Dis 11:1894-1898; 2005.
  41. O’Rourke LG, C Pitulle, BC Hegarty, S Kraycirik, JW Brown, EB Breitschwerdt: Bartonella quintana in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Emerg Infect Dis 11:1931-1934; 2005.
  42. Breitschwerdt E.B., Levine J.F., Radulovic S., Hanby S.B., Kordick D.L., LaPerle K.M.D. Bartonella henselae and Rickettsia seroreactivity in a sick cat population from North Carolina. Internat J Appl Vet Res. 3:287-302, 2005.
  43. Maggi R.G., Chomel B. Hegarty B.C., Henn J. Breitschwerdt E. B. A Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii typing scheme based upon 16S-23S ITS and Pap31 sequences from dog, coyote, gray fox, and human isolates. Mol Cell Probes 20:128-134, 2006.
  44. Mellor P, Fetz K, Maggi R, Haugland S, Dunning M, Villiers E, Mellanby R, Williams D, Breitschwerdt E, Herrtage M. Alpha 1 protease inhibitor deficiency and Bartonella infection in association with panniculitis, polyarthritis and meningitis in a dog. . J Vet Intern Med 20:1023-1028; 2006.
  45. Kelly P., Rolain J-M., Maggi R., Sontakke S., Keene B., Hunter S., Lepidi H., Breitschwerdt K.T., Breitschwerdt E. B., Raoult D. Bartonella quintana endocarditis in two dogs. Emerg Infect Dis 12:1869:1872; 2006.
  46. Solano-Gallego L, J Llull, M Osso, B Hegarty, E Breitschwerdt: A serological study of exposure to arthropod-borne pathogens in dogs form northeastern Spain. Vet Res 37:231-244; 2006.
  47. Breitschwerdt EB, RG Maggi, B Sigmon, WL Nicholson: Isolation of Bartonella quintana from a woman and a cat following putative bite transmission.  J Clin Microbiol 45:270-272; 2007.
  48. Duncan AW, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB. A combined approach for the enhanced detection and isolation of Bartonella species in dog blood samples: Pre-enrichment culture followed by PCR and subculture onto agar plates. J Micrbiol Meth, 2007; 69: 273-281.
  49. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Duncan AW, Nicholson WL, Hegarty BC, Woods CW. Bartonella species in blood of immunocompetent persons with animal and arthropod contact. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 938-941, 2007.
  50. PPVP Diniz, Maggi RG, Schwartz DS, Cadenas MB, Bradley JM, Hegarty BC, Breitschwerdt EB. Canine bartonellosis: Serological and molecular prevalence in Brazil and evidence of co-infection with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii. Vet Res. 2007;38:697-710.
  51. Valentine KH, Harms CA, Cadenas MB, Birkenheuer AJ, Marr HS, Braun-McNeill J, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB. Molecular detection of Bartonella DNA in the blood of Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta), Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:949-950.
  52. Duncan AW, RG Maggi, EB Breitschwerdt. Bartonella DNA detected in saliva collected from dogs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1948-1950.
  53. Cockwill KR, Taylor SM, Philibert HM, Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG. Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii endocarditis in a dog from Saskatchewan. Can Vet J. 2007 ;48:839-44.
  54. Morales, SC, Breitschwerdt EB, Washabau RJ, Matise I, Maggii RG, Duncan AW. Detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in two dogs with pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;230:681-5.
  55. Cadenas MB, MG Maggi, PPVP, KT Breitschwerdt, S, Sontakke, EB Breitschwerdt. Identification of bacteria from clinical samples using Bartonella-alpha proteobacteria growth medium. J Microbiol Methods 71:147-155; 2007.
  56. Yabsley MJ, J McKibben, CN Macpherson, PF Cattan, NA Cherry, BC Hegarty, EB Breitschwerdt, T O’Connor, R Chandrashekar, T Paterson, ML Pear, G Ball, S Friesen, J Goedde, B Henderson, W Sylvester. Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii, and Rickettsia in dogs from Grenada. Vet Parasitol 151:279-285; 2008.
  57. Duncan AW, HS Marr, AJ Birkenheuer, RG Maggi, LE Williams, MT Correa, and EB Breitschwerdt. Bartonella DNA in the blood and lymph nodes of Golden Retrievers with lymphoma and in healthy controls. J Vet Intern Med. 22:88-98, 2008
  58. Billeter SA, Miller MK, Breitschwerdt EB, Levy MG. Detection of two Bartonella tamiae-like sequences in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) using 16S-23S intergenic spacer region-specific primers. J Med Entomol 45:176-179, 2008.
  59. Jones SL, Ricardo M, Shuler J, Alward A, Breitschwerdt EB. Detection of Bartonella henselae in the blood of two adult horses. J Vet Intern Med 22: 495-498, 2008
  60. Billeter SA, Levy MG, Chomel BB, Breitschwerdt EB. Vector transmission of Bartonella species with emphasis on the potential for tick transmission. Med Vet Entomol 22: 1-15, 2008.
  61. Cross J, Rossmeisl Jr. J, Maggi R, Breitschwerdt E, Duncan R. Bartonella-associated meningoradiculoneuritis and dermatitis or panniculitis in three dogs.  J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22:674-8.
  62. Cadenas MB, Bradley J, Maggi RG, Takara M, Hegarty BC, Breitschwerdt EB.Molecular characterization of Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii genotype III. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:1858-60.
  63. Harms C, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB, Clemons-Chevis CL, Solangi M, Rotstein DS, Fair PA, Hansen LJ, Hohn AA, Lovewell GN, McLellan WA, Pabst DA, Rowles TK, Schwacke LH, Townsend FI, Wells RS. Bartonella species detection in captive, stranded and free-ranging cetaceans. Vet Res 2008;39:59.
  64. Petanides TA, Koutinas AF, Mylonakis ME, Day MJ, Saridomichelakis MN, Leontides LS, Mischke R, Diniz P, Breitschwerdt EB, Kritsepi M, Garipidou VA, Koutinas CK, Lekkas S. Factors Associated with the Occurrence of Epistaxis in Natural Canine Leishmaniasis (Leishmania infantum). J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22:866-72.
  65. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Nicholson WL, Cherry NA, Woods CW. Bartonella bacteremia in patients with neurological and neuro-cognitive dysfunction. J Clin Microbiol. 2008:2856-2861.
  66. Hawkins EC, Johnson LR, Guptill L, Marr HS, Breitschwerdt EB, Schwartz DS. Failure to identifiy an association between serologic or molecular evidence of Bartonella infection and idiopathic rhinitis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;15:597-599.
  67. Maggi RG, Raverty SA, Lester SJ, Huff DG, Haulena M, Ford SL, Nielsen O, Robinson JH, Breitschwerdt EB.   Bartonella henselae in captive and hunter harvested beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:871-877.
  68. Cherry NA, Diniz PPVP, Maggi RG, Hummel JB  Hardie, EM, Behrend EN, Rozanski E, Cadenas MB. Breitschwerdt EB. Isolation or molecular detection of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii in idiopathic effusion samples obtained from dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:186-189.
  69. Maggi RG, Kosoy M, Mintzer M, Breitschwerdt EB. Isolation of Candidatus Bartonella melophagi from Human Blood. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:66-68.
  70. Lappin MR, Breitschwerdt EB, Brewer M, Hawley J, Hegarty B, Radecki S. Prevalence of Bartonella species antibodies and Bartonella species DNA in the blood of cats with and without fever. J Feline Med Surg 2009;11:141-148.
  71. Cherry NA, Maggi RG, Cannedy AL, Breitschwerdt EB. PCR detection of Bartonella bovis and Bartonella henselae in the blood of beef cattle. Vet Microbiol Microbiol 2009;135:308-312.
  72. Diniz PP, Billeter SA, Otranto D, De Caprariis D, Petanides T, Mylonakis ME, Koutinas AF, Breitschwerdt EB. Molecular documentation of Bartonella infection in dogs in Greece and Italy. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47:1565-1567.
  73. Bouchouicha R, Durand B, Monteil M, Chomel BB, Berrich M, Arvand M, Birtles RJ, Breitschwerdt EB, Koehler JE, Maggi R, Maruyama S, Kasten R, Petit E, Boulouis HJ, Haddad N. Molecular epidemiology of feline and human Bartonella henselae Emerg Infect Dis 2009; 15:813-816.
  74. Varanat M, Maggi RG, Linder KE, Horton S, Breitschwerdt EB. Cross contamination in the molecular detection of Bartonella spp from paraffin embedded tissues. Vet Pathol 2009; 46:940-944.
  75. Diniz, PPVDP, Wood MW, Maggi RG, Sontakke S, Stepnik M, Breitschwerdt EB, Co-isolation of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii from blood, joint and subcutaneous seroma fluids from two naturally infected dogs. In Vet Microbiol 2009; 138:368-372.
  76. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG. A confusing case of canine vector-borne disease: clinical signs and progression in a dog co-infected with Ehrlichia canis and Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii. Parasites Vectors 2009; 2 (Suppl 1):S3
  77. Billeter SA, Diniz PP, Battisti JM, Munderloh UG, Breitschwerdt EB, Levy MG. Infection and replication of Bartonella species within a tick cell line. Exp Appl Acarol. 2009; 49:193-208.
  78. Varanat M, Travis A, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB. Isolation of Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii genotype II from a cat with recurrent osteomyelitis. J Vet Intern Med 2009; 23: 1273-1277.
  79. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Varanat M, Linder KE, Weinberg G. Isolation of Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii genotype II from a boy with epitheloid hemangioendothelioma and a dog with hemangiopericytoma. J Clin Microbiol. 2009; 47:1957-60.
  80. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Cadenas MB, Diniz PPVP. A ground hog, a novel Bartonella sequence and my father’s death. Emerg Infect Dis 2009; 15: 2080-2086.
  81. Dietrich F, Schmidgen T, Maggi RG, Richter D, Matuschka F-R, Vonthein R, Breitschwerdt EB, Kempf VAJ. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010; 76: 1395-1398.
  82. Biswas S, Maggi RG, Papich MG, Keil D, Breitschwerdt EB. Comparative activity of pradofloxacin, enrofloxacin and azithromycin against Bartonella henselae isolates derived from cats and a human. Antimicrob Chemother 2010; 65:581-582.
  83. Biswas S, Maggi RG, Papich MG, Breitschwerdt EB. Molecular mechanisms of Bartonella resistance to azithromycin, enrofloxacin and pradofloxacin J Antimicrob Chemother 2010; 65:581-582.
  84. Diniz PPVP, MJ Beall, K Omark, R Chandrashekar, DA Daniluk, KE Cyr, JF Koterski, RG Robbins, PG Lalo, BC Hegarty, EB Breitschwerdt: High Prevalence of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Dogs from an Indian Reservation in Northeastern Arizona. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2010; 10:117-123.
  85. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Lantos PM, Woods CW, Hegarty BC, Bradley JM. Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae in a father and daughter with neurological disease. Parasites and Vectors 2010; 3: 29.
  86. Kelly P, L Moura, T Miller, J Thurk, N Perreault, A Weil, R Maggi, H Lucas, E Breitschwerdt: Feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus and Bartonella in stray cats on St. Kitts, West Indies. J Feline Med & Surg 2010; 12: 447-450.
  87. Barber R, Q Li, PPVP Diniz, BF Porter, EB Breitschwerdt, MK Claiborne, AJ Birkenheuer, JM Levine, GJ Levine, K Chandler, K Greer, P Kenny, P Nghiem,  W Wei, CE Greene, M Kent, SR Platt, SJ Schatzberg: Evaluation of brain tissue and/or cerebrospinal fluid with broadly reactive PCR for Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia, Bartonella and Borrelia species in canine neurological diseases (109 cases). J Vet Intern Med. 2010; 24: 372-378.
  88. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Farmer P, Mascarelli PE. Molecular evidence of perinatal transmission of Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii and B. henselae to a child. J Clin Microbiol. 2010; 48: 2289-2293.
  89. Perez C, Hummel JB, Keene BW, Maggi RG, Diniz PPVP, Breitschwerdt EB. Successful treatment of Bartonella henselae endocarditis in a cat. J Feline Med Surg. 2010; 12: 483-486.
  90. Yager JA, SJ Best, MG Maggi, M Varant, N Znajda, EB Breitschwerdt: Bacillary angiomatosis in an immunosuppressed Vet Dermat 2010; 21: 420-428.
  91. Oliveira AM, RG Maggi, CW Woods, Breitschwerdt EB: Putative needle stick transmission of Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii to a veterinarian. J Vet Intern Med. 2010;24:1229-1232.
  92. Chinnadurai SK, Birkenheuer AJ , Blanton HL, Maggi RG, Belfiore N, Marr HS, Breitschwerdt EB, Stoskopf MK. Prevalence of Selected Vector-borne Organisms and Identification of Bartonella Species DNA in North American River Otters (Lontra canadensis) J Wildlife Dis 2010; 46:947-950.
  93. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Mozayeni BR, Bradley JM, Hegarty BC, Mascarelli Isolation or PCR amplification of Bartonella koehlerae from human blood. Parasites and Vectors 2010; 3:76.
  94. Sykes JE, Lindsay LL, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB. Human coinfection with Bartonella henselae and two hemotropic mycoplasma variants resembling Mycoplasma ovis. J Clin Microbiol. 2010; 48: 3782-5.
  95. Bradbury CA, Green M, Brewer M, Breitschwerdt E, Lappin M. Survival of Bartonella henselae in the blood of cats used for transfusion. J Vet Intern Med 2010; 24(3): 759-759.
  96. Palmero J, Pasterla N, Kasten RW, Mapes S, Cherry NA, Breitschwerdt E, Chomel BB. Experimental infection with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella bovis in horses. J Vet Inter Med 2010; 24(3): 710-710.
  97. De Caprariis D, Dantas-Torres F, Capelli G, Mencke N, Stanneck D, Breitschwerdt EB, Otranto D. Evolution of clinical, haematological and biochemical findings in young dogs naturally infected by vector-borne pathogens. Vet Micro 2011; 149: 206-212.
  98. Beard AW, Maggi RG, Kennedy-Stoskopf S, Cherry NA, Sandfoss MR, Depreno CS, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella in feral pigs, southeastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011; 17(5): 893-895.
  99. Fenimore A, Varant M, Maggi R, Schultheiss P, Breitschwerdt E, Lappin MR. Bartonella DNA in cardiac tissue from dogs in Colorado and Wyoming. J Vet Intern Med 2011; 25(3): 613-616.
  100. Perez C, Diniz PPVP, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB. Molecular and serologic diagnosis of Bartonella infection in 61 dogs from the United States. J Vet Intern Med 2011;25:805-810.
  101. Cherry NA, Liebisch G, Liebisch A, Breitschwerdt EB, Jones SL, Ulrich R, Allmers E, Wolf P, Hewicker-Trautwein M. Identification of Bartonella henselae in a horse from Germany. Vet Micro 2011; 150(3):414-415.
  102. Varanat M, Maggi RG, Linder KE, Breitschwerdt EB. Molecular prevalence of Bartonella, Babesia and hemotropic Mycoplasma in dogs with splenic disease. JVIM 2011;25:1284–1291.
  103. Mascarelli PE, JR Iredell, RG Maggi, G Weinberg, EB Breitschwerdt: Bartonella species bacteremia in two patients with epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49:4006-4012.
  104. Breitschwerdt EB, PE Mascarelli, LA Schweickert, RG Maggi, BC Hegarty, JM Bradley, CW Woods: Hallucinations, sensory neuropathy, and peripheral visual deficits in a young woman infected with Bartonella koehlerae. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49: 3415-3417.
  105. Cherry NA, Maggi RG, Rossmeisl JH, Hegarty BC, Breitschwerdt EB. Ecological Diversity of Bartonella Species Infection among Dogs and Their Owner in Virginia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2011; 11: 1425-32.
  106. Maggi RG, Mascarelli PE, Pultorak EL, Hegarty BC, Bradley JM, Mozayeni BR, Breitschwerdt Bartonella spp. bacteremia in high-risk immunocompetent patients. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011; 71: 43—37.
  107. Billeter SA, Breitschwerdt EB, Levy MG. Invasion of canine erythrocytes by Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii. Vet Microbiol. 2012; 156:213-6.
  108. VanderHeyden TR, Yong SL, Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Parada JP and Mihalik AR, Fimmel CJ. Granulomatous hepatitis due to Bartonella henselae infection in an immunocompetent patient. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2012; 12: 17.
  109. Billeter SA, Kasten RW, Killmaster LF, Breitschwerdt EB, Levin ML, Levy MG, Kosoy MY, Chomel BB. Experimental infection by capillary tube feeding of Rhipicephalus sanguineus with Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012; 35: 9-15.
  110. Varanat M, Broadhurst J, Linder K, Maggi M, Breitschwerdt E. Identification of Bartonella henselae in 2 Cats With Pyogranulomatous Myocarditis and Diaphragmatic Myositis. Vet Pathol. 49: 608-611, 2012.
  111. Palmero J, Pusterla N, Kasten RW, Mapes S, Cherry NA, Boulouis HJ, Breitschwerd EB, Chomel Experimental Infection of horses with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella bovis. JVIM 2012: 26:377-383.
  112. Maggi RG, Mozayeni BR, Pultorak EL, Hegarty BC, Bradley JM, Correa M, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella bacteremia and rheumatic symptoms in patients from Lyme Disease-endemic region. Emerg Infect Dis 2012;18:783-791.
  113. Beerlage C, Varanat M, Linder K, Maggi RG, Colley J, Kempf AJK, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella vinsonii berkhofffii and Bartonella henselae as potential causes of proliferative vascular disease in animals. Med Microbiol Immunol. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2012: 319-326, 2012.
  114. Cherry NA, Jones SL, Maggi RG, Davis JL, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella infection in healthy and sick horses and foals from the southeastern United States. J Vet Intern Med 26:1408-1412; 2012.
  115. Chomel BB, McMIllan-Cole AC, Kasten RW, Stuckey MJ, Sato S, Maruyama S, Diniz PPVP, Breitschwerdt EB Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a potential new zoonotic Bartonella species in canids from Iraq. PLOS Neglect Trop Dis 6:e1843; 2012.
  116. Karagianni AE, Solano-Gallego L, Breitschwerdt EB, Gaschen F, Day M, Goggs R, Trotta M, Wieland B, Allenspach Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies in dogs infected with various vector borne pathogens and in dogs with immune mediated haemolytic anemia. Am J Vet Res 73:1403-1409, 2012.
  117. Balakrishnan N, Jawanda JS, Miller MB, Breitschwerdt Bartonella henselae infection in a man with hypergammaglobulinaemia, splenomegaly and polyclonal plasmacytosis. J Med Microbiol. 62:338-41, 2013.
  118. Mascarelli PE, Maggi RG, Hopkins S, Mozayeni BR, Trull CL, Bradley JM, Hegarty BC, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella henselae infection in a family experiencing neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities after woodlouse hunter spider bites. Parasites and Vectors 6:98, 2013.
  119. Maggi RG, Ericson M, Mascarelli PE, Bradley JM, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a mother and son exposed to ticks in the Netherlands. Parasites and Vectors 6:101, 2013.
  120. Maggi RG, Mascarelli PE, Havenga LN, NAidoo V, Breitschwerdt EB. Co-infection with Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma hematoparvum in a veterinarian. Parasites and Vectors 6:106, 2013.
  121. Pultorak EL, Maggi RG, Mascarelli PE, Breitschwerdt EB. Serial testing from a three-day collection period using the BAPGM platform may enhance the sensitivity of Bartonella detection in bacteremic human patients. J Clin Microbiol 57: 1673-77, 2013. PMID: 23486720.
  122. Pérez Veraa C, Diniz PPVP, Pultorak EL, Maggi RG, Edward B. Breitschwerdt An unmatched case controlled study of clinicopathologic abnormalities in dogs with Bartonella infection. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 36:481-487, 2013.
  123. Pérez Vera C, Ricardo G. Maggi RG, Woods CW,  Mascarelli PE,  Breitschwerdt EB.  Spontaneous onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I in a woman infected with Bartonella koehlerae. Med Microbiol Immunol In press.
  124. Yore K, DiGangi B, Brewer M, Balakrishnan N, Breitschwerdt EB, Lappin M. Flea species infesting dogs in Florida and Bartonella prevalence rates.Vet Parasitol. 199::225-9, 2014.
  125. Balakrishnan N, Cherry NA, Linder KE, Pierce E, Sontakke N, Hegarty BC, Bradley JM, Maggi RG Breitschwerdt 2013. Experimental infection of dogs with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Vet Imm Immunopath 156: 153-158, 2013.
  126. Drut A, Bublot I, Breitschwerdt EB, et al. Comparative microbiological features of Bartonella henselae infection in a dog with fever of unknown origin and granulomatous lymphadenitis. Med Microbiol Immunol 2014; 203: 85-91.
  127. Balakrishnan N, Pritchard J, Ericson M, Grindem C, Phillips K, Jennings S, Matthews K, Tran H, Birkenheuer AJ, and Breitschwerdt EB. Prostatitis, steatitis and eosinophilic enteritis in a dog following presumptive flea transmission of Bartonella henselae. J Clin Microbiol 2014;52:3447-3452.
  128. Pultorak EL, Linder K, Maggi RG, Balakrishnan N, Breitschwerdt EB. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. in Canine Cutaneous Histiocytoma.J Comp Pathol. 2015;153:14-21.
  129. Hegarty BC, Bradley JM, Lappin MR, Balakrishnan N, Mascarelli PE, Breitschwerdt EB. Analysis of Seroreactivity against Cell Culture-derived Bartonella Antigens in Dogs. J Vet Intern Med 28: 38-41, 2014.
  130. Bradley JM, Mascarelli PE, Trull CL, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella henselae infections in an owner and two Papillon dogs exposed to tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014;14:703-9.
  131. Lantos PM, Maggi RG, Ferguson B, VarkeyJ, Park LP, Breitschwerdt EB, Woods CW. Detection of Bartonella species in the blood of veterinarians and veterinary technicians: A newly recognized occupational hazard. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis Dis 14:563-570, 2015.
  132. Pitassi LH, de Paiva Diniz PP, Scorpio DG, Drummond MR, Lania BG, Barjas-Castro ML, Gilioli R, Colombo S, Sowy S, Breitschwerdt EB, Nicholson WL, Velho PE. Bartonella bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.
  133. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9(1).
  134. Vieira-Damiani G, Diniz PP, Pitassi LH, Sowy S, Scorpio DG, Lania BG, Drummond MR, Soares TC, Barjas-Castro Mde L, Breitschwerdt EB, Nicholson WL, Velho PE. Bartonella clarridgeiae bacteremia detected in an asymptomatic blood donor. J Clin Microbiol.53:352-6, 2015.
  135. Pultorak EL, Linder KE, Maggi RG, Balakrishnan N, Breitschwerdt EB. Prevalence of Bartonella in Canine Cutaneous Histiocytoma. J Comp Pathol. 2015;53:1556-61.
  136. Maggi RG, Balakrishnan N, Bradley JM, Breitschwerdt Infection with Bartonella henselae in a Danish family. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53:1556-61.
  137. Friedenberg S, Balakrishnan N, Guillaumin J, Cooper ES, Lewis K, Russell DS, Breitschwerdt EB. Fever, polyarthritis, splenic vasculitis, thrombosis and infarction in a dog infected with Bartonella henselae. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2015;25:789-94.
  138. Breitschwerdt EB. Did Bartonella henselae contribute to the deaths of two veterinarians? Parasit Vectors 2015;8:e317.
  139. Breitschwerdt EB. Broadhurst JJ, Cherry NA. Bartonella henselae as a cause of acute-onset fever in cats. Journal of Fel Med Surgery Open Reports 2015;1:1-9.

Human Bartonella Research Publications Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory

Human Bartonella Research Publications
Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory

Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine.

  1. Breitschwerdt EB, RG Maggi, B Sigmon, WL Nicholson: Isolation of Bartonella quintana from a woman and a cat following putative bite transmission.  J Clin Microbiol 45:270-272; 2007.
  2. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Duncan AW, Nicholson WL, Hegarty BC, Woods CW. Bartonella species in blood of immunocompetent persons with animal and arthropod contact. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 938-941, 2007.
  3. Cadenas MB, MG Maggi, PPVP, KT Breitschwerdt, S, Sontakke, EB Breitschwerdt. Identification of bacteria from clinical samples using Bartonella-alpha proteobacteria growth medium. J Microbiol Methods 71:147-155; 2007.
  4. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Nicholson WL, Cherry NA, Woods CW. Bartonella bacteremia in patients with neurological and neuro-cognitive dysfunction. J Clin Microbiol. 2008:2856-2861.
  5. Maggi RG, Kosoy M, Mintzer M, Breitschwerdt EB. Isolation of Candidatus Bartonella melophagi from Human Blood. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:66-68.
  6. Bouchouicha R, Durand B, Monteil M, Chomel BB, Berrich M, Arvand M, Birtles RJ, Breitschwerdt EB, Koehler JE, Maggi R, Maruyama S, Kasten R, Petit E, Boulouis HJ, Haddad N. Molecular epidemiology of feline and human Bartonella henselae Emerg Infect Dis 2009; 15:813-816.
  7. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Varanat M, Linder KE, Weinberg G. Isolation of Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii genotype II from a boy with epitheloid hemangioendothelioma and a dog with hemangiopericytoma. J Clin Microbiol. 2009; 47:1957-60.
  8. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Cadenas MB, Diniz PPVP. A ground hog, a novel Bartonella sequence and my father’s death. Emerg Infect Dis 2009; 15: 2080-2086.
  9. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Lantos PM, Woods CW, Hegarty BC, Bradley JM. Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae in a father and daughter with neurological disease. Parasites and Vectors 2010; 3: 29.
  10. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Farmer P, Mascarelli PE. Molecular evidence of perinatal transmission of Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii and B. henselae to a child. J Clin Microbiol. 2010; 48: 2289-2293.
  11. Oliveira AM, RG Maggi, CW Woods, EB Breitschwerdt EB: Putative needle stick transmission of Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii to a veterinarian. J Vet Intern Med. 2010;24:1229-1232.
  12. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Mozayeni BR, Bradley JM, Hegarty BC, Mascarelli Isolation or PCR amplification of Bartonella koehlerae from human blood. Parasites and Vectors 2010; 3:76.
  13. Sykes JE, Lindsay LL, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB. Human coinfection with Bartonella henselae and two hemotropic mycoplasma variants resembling Mycoplasma ovis. J Clin Microbiol. 2010; 48: 3782-5.
  14. Mascarelli PE, JR Iredell, RG Maggi, G Weinberg, EB Breitschwerdt: Bartonella species bacteremia in two patients with epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49:4006-4012.
  15. Breitschwerdt EB, PE Mascarelli, LA Schweickert, RG Maggi, BC Hegarty, JM Bradley, CW Woods: Hallucinations, sensory neuropathy, and peripheral visual deficits in a young woman infected with Bartonella koehlerae. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49: 3415-3417.
  16. Cherry NA, Maggi RG, Rossmeisl JH, Hegarty BC, Breitschwerdt EB. Ecological Diversity of Bartonella Species Infection among Dogs and Their Owner in Virginia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2011; 11: 1425-32.
  17. Maggi RG, Mascarelli PE, Pultorak EL, Hegarty BC, Bradley JM, Mozayeni BR, Breitschwerdt Bartonella spp. bacteremia in high-risk immunocompetent patients. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011; 71: 43—37.
  18. VanderHeyden TR, Yong SL, Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Parada JP and Mihalik AR, Fimmel CJ. Granulomatous hepatitis due to Bartonella henselae infection in an immunocompetent patient. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2012; 12: 17.
  19. Maggi RG, Mozayeni BR, Pultorak EL, Hegarty BC, Bradley JM, Correa M, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella bacteremia and rheumatic symptoms in patients from Lyme Disease-endemic region. Emerg Infect Dis 2012;18:783-791.
  20. Breitschwerdt EB, Sontakke S, Hopkins S. Neurological manifestations of bartonellosis in immunocompetent patients: A composite of reports from 2005-2012. J Neuroparasitology 2012; 3:1-15.
  21. Balakrishnan N, Jawanda JS, Miller MB, Breitschwerdt Bartonella henselae infection in a man with hypergammaglobulinaemia, splenomegaly and polyclonal plasmacytosis. J Med Microbiol. 62:338-41, 2013.
  22. Mascarelli PE, Maggi RG, Hopkins S, Mozayeni BR, Trull CL, Bradley JM, Hegarty BC, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella henselae infection in a family experiencing neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities after woodlouse hunter spider bites. Parasites and Vectors 6:98, 2013.
  23. Maggi RG, Ericson M, Mascarelli PE, Bradley JM, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a mother and son exposed to ticks in the Netherlands. Parasites and Vectors 6:101, 2013.
  24. Maggi RG, Mascarelli PE, Havenga LN, NAidoo V, Breitschwerdt EB. Co-infection with Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma hematoparvum in a veterinarian. Parasites and Vectors 6:106, 2013.
  25. Pultorak EL, Maggi RG, Mascarelli PE, Breitschwerdt EB. Serial testing from a three-day collection period using the BAPGM platform may enhance the sensitivity of Bartonella detection in bacteremic human patients. J Clin Microbiol 57: 1673-77, 2013. PMID: 23486720.
  26. Maggi RG, Compton SM, Trull CL, Mascarelli PE, Mozayeni BR, Breitschwerdt EB. Infection with hemotropic Mycoplasma in people with and without extensive arthropod and animal contact. J Clin Microbiol 51:3237-41, 2013.
  27. Pérez Vera C, Maggi RG, Woods CW, Mascarelli PE, Breitschwerdt EB. Spontaneous onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I in a woman infected with Bartonella koehlerae. Med Microbiol Immunol 2014;203:101-107.
  28. Bradley JM, Mascarelli PE, Trull CL, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB. 2014. Bartonella henselae infections in an owner and two Papillion Dogs exposed to Tropical Rat Mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 14:703-709.
  29. Lantos PM, Maggi RG, Ferguson B, VarkeyJ, Park LP, Breitschwerdt EB, Woods CW. 2014. Detection of Bartonella species in the blood of veterinarians and veterinary technicians: A newly recognized occupational hazard. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014;14: 563-570.
  30. Rossi MA, Balakrishnan N, Linder KE, Messa JB, Breitschwerdt EB. Concurrent Bartonella henselae infection in a dog with panniculitis and owner with ulcerated nodular skin lesions. Vet Dermatol 2015;26:e22.
  31. Vieira-Damiani G, Diniz PP, Pitassi L, Sowy S, Scorpio D, Lania B, Drummond M, Soares T, Barjas-Castro ML, Breitschwerdt EB, Nicholson W, and Paulo Eduardo Velho PE. Bartonella clarridgeiae bacteremia detected in an asymptomatic blood donor. J Clin Microbiol 2015;53:352-356.
  32. Pitassi LH, de Paiva Diniz PP, Scorpio DG, Drummond MR, Lania BG, Barjas-Castro ML, Gilioli R, Colombo S, Sowy S, Breitschwerdt EB, Nicholson WL, Velho PE. Bartonella bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9: e0003467.
  33. Maggi RG, Balakrishnan N, Bradley JM, Breitschwerdt EB. Infection with Bartonella henselae in a Danish family. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53:1556-61.
  34. Breitschwerdt EB. Did Bartonella henselae contribute to the deaths of two veterinarians? Parasit Vectors 2015;8:e317

Review Articles / Symposia

 Review Articles / Symposia 

  1. Breitschwerdt EB: Bartonellaceae (Rochalimaea): Implications for companion animal practice. Proceedings, 12th ACVIM Forum, 119-122, 1994.
  2. Breitschwerdt, EB, DL Kordick: Bartonellosis (Zoonosis Update) J Am Vet Med Assoc 206: 1928–1931, 1995.
  3. Baneth G, Kordick DL, EB Breitschwerdt: Cat scratch disease and Bartonella henselae associate syndromes. Proceedings, XXI Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association 4-6, 1996.
  4. Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonellosis: Of cats, dogs, mice and men. 15th ACVIM Forum, 505-509, 1997.
  5. Breitschwerdt EB, DL Kordick: Bartonella infection in animals: carriership, reservoir potential, pathogenicity, and zoonotic potential for human infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 13:428–438, 2000.
  6. Chomel BB, RW Kasten, JE Sykes, H-J Boulouis, EB Breitschwerdt: Clinical impact of persistent Bartonella bacteremia in humans and animals.  Annals New York Academy of Sciences 990:1-12; 2003.
  7. Breitschwerdt EB: Bartonella species as emerging vector-transmitted pathogens.  North American Veterinary Conference, Bayer Zoonosis Symposium. Compend Contin Educ Pract 25:12-15; 2003.
  8. Breitschwerdt EB: Canine bartonellosis: An emerging infectious disease.  Proceedings or the 2003 North American Veterinary Conference 13-20, January 2003.
  9. Breitschwerdt EB: Canine bartonellosis: An emerging infectious disease.  Proceedings of the 75th Annual Western Veterinary Conference, Mandalay Bay Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nevada, February 19, 2003.
  10. Chomel BB, HJ Boulouis HJ, S Maruyama, EB Breitschwerdt: Bartonella In pets and effect on human health.  Emerg Infect Dis 12:389-398; 2006.
  11. Breitschwerdt EB: Feline bartonellosis and cat scratch disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 123: 161-171, 2008.
  12. Chomel BB, Boulouis HJ, Breitschwerdt EB, Kasten RW, Vayssier-Taussat M, Birtles RJ, Koehler JE, Dehio C. Ecological fitness and strategies of adaptation of Bartonella species to their hosts and vectors. Vet Res 2009;40:29-.
  13. Chomel BB, RW Kasten, C Williams, AC Wey, JB Henn, R Maggi, S Carrasco, J Maxet, HJ Boulouis, R Maillard, EB Breitschwerdt. Bartonella Endocarditis: A pathology shared by animal reservoir hosts and patients. Ann NY Acad Sci 1166:120-126; 2009.
  14. Breitschwerdt EB, RG Maggi. Comparative medical features of canine and human bartonellosis. Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 15(Suppl 2):106-107; 2009.
  15. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Chomel BB, Lappin MR. Bartonellosis: An emerging infectious disease of zoonotic importance to animals and to human beings. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 20:8-30; 2010.
  16. Angelakis E, Billeter SA, Breitschwerdt EB, Chomel BB, and Raoult D. Are there tick-borne bartonelloses? Emerging Infect Dis 16:385-391, 2010.
  17. McElroy KM, Blagburn BL, Breitschwerdt EB, Mead PS, McQuiston JH. Flea-associated zoonotic disease of cats in the USA: bartonellosis, flea-borne rickettsioses, and plague. Trends Parasitol. Special Issue. 26:153-218, 2010.
  18. Day MJ, Breitschwerdt EB, Cleaveland S, Karkare U, Khanna C, Kirpensteijn J, Kuiken T, Lappin MR, McQuiston J, Mumford E, Myers T, Palatnik-de-Sousa CB,  Rubin C, Takashima G, Thiermann A. Surveillance of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Transmitted by Small Companion Animals. Emerg Infect Dis 2012 Dec [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120664
  19. Breitschwerdt EB, Sontakke S, Hopkins S. Neurological manifestations of bartonellosis in immunocompetent patients: A composite of reports from 2005-2012. J Neuroparasitology 3: 1-15, 2012.
  20. Breitschwerdt EB, Linder KL, Day MJ, Maggi RG, Chomel BB, Kempf VAJ. Koch’s Postulates and the Pathogenesis of Comparative Infectious Disease Causation Associated with Bartonella J Comp Pathol 2013;1: 1-11.
  21. Breitschwerdt Bartonellosis: one health perspectives for an emerging infectious disease. ILAR J. 2014;55:46-58.

Book Chapters & Textbooks

Book Chapters & Textbooks

  • Breitschwerdt EB: Bartonella henselae: Consequences of infection in the cat. In   August JR (ed). Consultations in Feline Internal Medicine. WB Saunders, 1996.
  • Breitschwerdt EB, CE Greene: Bartonellosis. In Bonagura JD (ed). Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XIII. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1998.
  • Kordick DL, EB Breitschwerdt: Infections and carriership of Bartonella and Afipia species in veterinary medicine. In Schmidt A (ed.), Bartonella and Afipia species with special regard to Bartonella henselae. Chapter 3, Contributions to Microbiology, Vol. 1, Karger, Basel, Switzerland, 1998.
  • Pappalardo BL, Breitschwerdt EB: Bartonella vinsonii infection in dogs. In Bonagura J (ed), Kirk’s Veterinary Therapy XIII.  Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 2000.
  • Kordick DL, Breitschwerdt EB: Bartonella infections in domestic cats. In Bonagura J (ed), Kirk’s Veterinary Therapy XIII.  Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 2000.
  • Chomel B, EB Breitschwerdt:  Bartonella infections in dogs.  In Beugnet F (ed), Guide to Major Vector-borne Diseases of Pets.  France, Merial, 2002.
  • Breitschwerdt EB:  Canine Bartonellosis:  An Emerging Infectious Disease.  Tick Borne Diseases.  Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference.  Wilmington, Delaware:  The Gloyd Group Inc., 2003; 13-20.
  • Breitschwerdt EB:  Canine Bartonellosis.  Chapter 167.  In Ettinger SJ and Feldman E (ed), Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 6th edition, 2004.
  • Breitschwerdt EB, Chomel BB. Canine Bartonellosis. In Greene CE. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th edition. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA
  • Maggi RG, Kempf VA, Chomel BB, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella. 2011, 10th Edition, Manual of Clinical Microbiology, ASM Press. Washington DC.
  • Maggi RG, CA Harms, EB Breitschwerdt:  Bartonellosis: An emerging disease of humans, domestic animals and wildlife.  Wildlife Foundation Trust, 2012.

Resources 

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Alternative Sample Methods

Webcasts and Podcasts

AKC Canine Health Foundation is helping dogs live longer, healthier lives by supporting research and diagnostic efforts like the work at the Vector Borne Disease Lab 

Podcasts 

  • Tick Borne Diseases  On Genome Barks, we welcome back Dr. Ed Breitschwerdt, a specialist in internal medicine and infectious disease at North Carolina State University. Dr. Breitschwerdt has received funding from the AKC Canine Health Foundation for various infectious diseases including Bartonella spp. In this podcast, Dr. Breitschwerdt describes several common tick borne illness, including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Ehrlichiosis and Lyme Disease. Dr. Breitschwerdt also shares the symptoms to watch for and what treatments are available.
  •  Bartonella: “The Hidden Epidemic!” – On Radio In Vivo. Guest: Dr. Edward Breitschwerdt, Professor of Internal Medicine, NCSU College of Veterinary Medicine; Chief Scientific Officer & Co-founder, Galaxy Diagnostics, Inc. Topics: Detection, diagnosis and treatment of Bartonella infections in animals and humans, vector borne diseases, One Health

News Articles

Articles

Bartonella is Everywhere, So Why Don’t We Know More About It?
North Carolina Health News, December 5, 2013
http://www.northcarolinahealthnews.org/2013/12/05/bartonella-is-everywhere-so-why-dont-we-know-more-about-it/

Optimizing Diagnosis & Management of Bartonella Infection, by Jeffrey
Wulfman, MD
Physician’s Weekly, April 22, 2013
http://www.physiciansweekly.com/bartonella-infection-diagnosis/

A New Frontier in Chronic Disease
Med Monthly, July 2012
http://issuu.com/medmedia9/docs/mm_july__2012_pdf/11

Germ that causes cat scratch disease not necessarily mild, Dec 2010
http://news.vin.com/VINNews.aspx?articleId=16570

Bartonella: Quantifying new risks to veterinarians, patients, Dec 2010
http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/dvm/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/698412